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Governing : An Introduction to Political Science / Edition 8
     

Governing : An Introduction to Political Science / Edition 8

by Austin Ranney
 

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ISBN-10: 0130180394

ISBN-13: 9780130180391

Pub. Date: 05/10/2000

Publisher: Pearson Education

In a comprehensive introduction to political processes and concepts, Ranney introduces the methods and consequences of political and government systems as they apply to the readers' own life experiences. A popular classic in the field, the Eighth Edition, provides accurate, current information on all major government and political developments ranging

Overview

In a comprehensive introduction to political processes and concepts, Ranney introduces the methods and consequences of political and government systems as they apply to the readers' own life experiences. A popular classic in the field, the Eighth Edition, provides accurate, current information on all major government and political developments ranging from local concerns to the global economy. Defines and illustrates politics, policies and government procedures with a clear connection to individual citizen's lives. Explores political psychology, socialization and culture, and examines modern political ideologies. Examines the international political economy and the different efforts for global peace. For individuals with an interest in the political policies, concepts and methods of the United States and other countries, as well as, a reference for those who need to refresh their knowledge of political systems.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780130180391
Publisher:
Pearson Education
Publication date:
05/10/2000
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
510
Product dimensions:
7.18(w) x 9.46(h) x 1.11(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Part I Politics, Governments, and People 1(112)
Politics in Human Life
1(23)
What Is Politics?
1(3)
"Politics" in Everyday Conversation
1(1)
Politics as Policy Making
2(2)
Some Universal Characteristics of Politics
4(13)
Politics Is Conflict
4(1)
Group Conflict in Politics
5(3)
Tactics of Political Action
8(8)
Who Uses Which Tactics?
16(1)
Some Characteristics of Political Conflict
17(4)
Multiplicity
17(1)
Opposition
18(1)
Overlapping Memberships
19(1)
Imperfect Mobilization
19(2)
Politics and Government
21(1)
For Further Information
22(1)
Notes
23(1)
Governments and Governing
24(20)
What Governments Do
25(1)
In Primitive Societies
25(1)
In "Advanced/Industrialized" Societies
25(1)
What Is Government?
26(1)
Government and Other Organizations
26(1)
Government Defined
26(1)
How Government Differs from Other Social Organizations
27(4)
Comprehensive Authority
27(1)
Involuntary Membership
28(1)
Authoritative Rules
28(1)
Legitimate Monopoly of Overwhelming Force
29(1)
Highest Stakes
30(1)
Basic Tasks and Tools of Government
31(2)
Interest Articulation
31(1)
Interst Aggregation
32(1)
Coercion and Compromise
32(1)
An Illustration: The American Conflict over Abortion
33(4)
The Pro-life Side
34(1)
The Pro-choice Side
35(1)
Where Things Stand
35(1)
Some Lessons for the Study of Governing
36(1)
Nationalism and the Birth and Death of Nations
37(5)
Nature of Nations
37(3)
Birth of Nations
40(1)
Death of Nations
40(2)
For Further Information
42(1)
Notes
43(1)
Political Psychology, Socialization, and Culture
44(25)
Political Psychology: What Forms People's Political Beliefs and Behavior?
44(9)
Biological Nature and Needs
44(1)
Psychological Processes and Cognitive Maps
45(2)
Group Memberships and Pressures to Conform
47(6)
Political Socialization
53(7)
Concept
53(1)
Profile of the Developing Political Self
54(2)
Agents of Socialization
56(4)
Political Culture
60(7)
Components
60(3)
Some Differences among Political Cultures
63(4)
For Further Information
67(1)
Notes
68(1)
Modern Political Ideologies
69(25)
Nature of Ideologies
69(4)
What Is an Ideology?
69(1)
Intellectual Components of an Ideology
70(2)
Types of Ideologies
72(1)
Ideologies of Limits on Government
73(4)
Constitutionalism and Classical Liberalism
73(3)
Totalitarianism
76(1)
Ideologies of Economic Control
77(8)
Capitalism and Laissez Faire
77(2)
Socialism
79(6)
Political Ideologies, American Style
85(6)
Modern American Liberalism
86(1)
Modern American Conservatism
87(1)
Liberals and Conservatives in Today's Politics
88(3)
For Further Information
91(1)
Notes
92(2)
Democracy and Authoritarianism: Principles and Models
94(19)
Principles for a Working Definition of Democracy
95(5)
Popular Sovereignty
96(1)
Political Equality
97(1)
Popular Consultation
97(1)
Majority Rule
98(2)
Models of Democracy
100(6)
Nature and Uses of Models in Social Science
100(3)
Participatory and Accountable-Elites Models
103(1)
Presidential and Parliamentary Models
104(1)
Majoritarian and Consensual Models
105(1)
Authoritarianism and Dictatorship
106(2)
Classifying Actual Governments
108(1)
Surge of Democracy
109(1)
For Further Information
110(1)
Notes
111(2)
Part II Politics Outside Formal Governments 113(120)
Public Opinion in Democratic Systems
113(19)
Nature of Public Opinion
114(9)
Definition
114(1)
Dimensions of Public Opinion: Preference and Intensity
115(1)
Measurement by Public Opinion Polls
116(7)
Opinion Distributions in Western Democracies
123(7)
What Concerns People?
123(1)
Ideology
124(3)
Domestic Policy: Economic and Social Responsibilities of Government
127(2)
Foreign Policy
129(1)
For Further Information
130(1)
Notes
130(2)
Political Communication
132(28)
Nature of Political Communication
134(2)
What Is Communication?
134(1)
Elements of Political Communication
134(2)
Mass Communications Media
136(16)
Television
137(8)
Newspapers
145(1)
Radio
146(1)
Electronic Mail, the Internet, and the World Wide Web
147(5)
Political Impact of Mass Communications
152(4)
On Mass Publics
148(4)
On Political and Governmental Leaders
152(4)
Communications Revolutions, Past and Future
156(2)
For Further Information
158(1)
Notes
158(2)
The Electoral Process
160(32)
Elections in Democratic Systems
160(12)
Essential Characteristics of Free Elections
161(1)
Qualifications for Voting
162(3)
Nonvoting and Compulsory Voting
165(4)
Nominations and Candidate Selection
169(3)
Principal Democratic Electoral Systems
172(8)
Single-Member-District Systems
173(1)
Multimember-Proportional Systems
173(3)
Political Effects of Electoral Systems
176(2)
The German Hybrid
178(2)
Apportionment of Electoral Districts
180(3)
Problems
181(1)
Procedures
182(1)
Referendum Elections
183(6)
Rationale
183(1)
Organization
184(1)
Results and Evaluation
185(2)
Referendums and Legitimacy in Eastern Europe
187(2)
For Further Information
189(2)
Notes
191(1)
Voting Behavior
192(14)
Intervening Variables in Voting Behavior
193(11)
Party Identification
194(6)
Issue Orientation
200(2)
Candidate Orientation
202(2)
For Further Information
204(1)
Notes
205(1)
Political Parties and Party Systems
206(27)
Political Parties in Democratic Systems
206(7)
What Is a Political Party?
206(1)
Party Identification and Membership
207(2)
Principal Activities of Parties
209(4)
Differences among Parties in Democratic Systems
213(5)
In the Nature and Role of Ideology
213(3)
In Centralization
216(1)
In Discipline
217(1)
In Cohesion
218(1)
Fractionalization of Democratic Party Systems
218(6)
Measurement: Rae's Index of Fractionalization
219(3)
Characteristics of the More Fractionalized Systems
222(1)
Characteristics of the Less Fractionalized Systems
222(2)
Authoritarian One-Party Systems
224(6)
Monoparty Systems
225(3)
Dominant Party Systems
228(2)
For Further Information
230(2)
Notes
232(1)
Part III Governmental Structures, Authorities, and Processes 233(121)
The Legislative Process
233(30)
Presidential and Parliamentary Democracies
233(4)
Doctrine of Separation of Powers
234(1)
Separation of Powers in Presidential Democracies
235(1)
Fusion of Powers in Parliamentary Democracies
235(1)
Crossing Boundaries
236(1)
Functions of Legislatures
237(4)
Statute Making
237(1)
Constitution Making and Amending
237(1)
Electoral Functions
238(1)
Financial Functions
238(1)
Quasi-Executive Functions
238(1)
Quasi-Judicial Functions
239(1)
Investigative Functions
240(1)
Informational Functions
240(1)
Structres and Procedures of Legislatures
241(10)
Number of Houses
241(1)
Main Steps in Handling Bills
242(3)
Legislative Committees
245(3)
Party Organization
248(3)
Legislative Ways of Life
251(4)
Party Soldiers
251(2)
Independent Operators
253(2)
Representative-Constituent Relationships
255(3)
Mandate Theory
255(1)
Independence Theory
256(1)
American Attitudes toward Congress and Members of Congress
257(1)
Changing Roles of Democratic Legislatures
258(2)
"Transformative" versus "Arena" Legislatures
258(1)
Growth as Checkers, Revisers, and Overseers
259(1)
For Further Information
260(2)
Notes
262(1)
The Executive Process
263(32)
What Is an Executive?
264(1)
Executive as the Core of Government
264(1)
Two Fundamental Executive Functions
264(1)
Executive as Chief of State
265(4)
Principal Types
265(2)
Principal Functions
267(1)
Separation and Mingling of Roles
268(1)
President as Head of Government
269(15)
Presidents and Prime Ministers
269(1)
U.S. Presidential Roles
270(9)
Power and Problems of the U.S. President
279(1)
Presidency of France
280(2)
Israel's Hybrid
282(1)
Other Presidencies
283(1)
Prime Minister as Head of Government
284(7)
Structure of the British Executive
284(2)
Cabinet Status, Functions, and Powers
286(1)
Prime Minister and Cabinet
287(1)
Prime Ministers in Coalition Governments
288(3)
Executive in Nondemocratic Systems
291(1)
For Further Information
292(1)
Notes
293(2)
The Administrative Process
295(31)
Distinction between Executives and Administrators
295(2)
In Functions
295(1)
In Selection and Tenure
296(1)
What about "Bureaucracy"?
296(1)
Formal Status of Administrative Agencies
297(12)
Size
297(1)
Structure
298(2)
Formal Administrative Functions
300(4)
Allocation of Funds to Administrative Functions
304(1)
Selection and Status of Administrators
304(5)
Politics, Administration, and Policy Making
309(7)
Dichotomy between Politics and Administration
309(2)
Policy Making by Administrators
311(5)
"Administocracy" in a Democracy: Problem and Solutions
316(7)
The Problem: Making Administrators Responsible
316(1)
Solutions
317(6)
For Further Information
323(1)
Notes
324(2)
Law and the Judicial Process
326(28)
Nature of Law
326(6)
Rules People Live By
327(1)
Types of Law
328(1)
Classified by Source
328(3)
Classified by Subject Matter
331(1)
Court Structures in Democratic Nations
332(9)
Special Judicial Functions
332(2)
Two Basic Systems of Justice
334(2)
Hierarchies of Appeal
336(1)
Selection and Tenure of Judges
337(3)
Formal Relationships with Legislatures and Executives
340(1)
Role of Judges in Governing
341(11)
Mechanical View
343(1)
Judicial Legislation
344(5)
Judges in the Political Process
349(3)
For Further Information
352(1)
Notes
353(1)
Part IV Public Policies and Their Impacts 354(49)
Human Rights: Principles and Problems
354(18)
Philosophical Fundations for Human Rights
354(4)
Basic Terms
354(1)
Evolving Idea of Human Rights
355(3)
Rights Formally Guaranteed by Constitutions
358(2)
Limitations on Government
359(1)
Obligations of Government
360(1)
Choices in the Implementation of Human Rights
360(8)
Freedom versus Security
364
Rights of Some versus Rights of Others
267(101)
Human Rights in the Political Process
368(2)
Human Right s Conflicts as Political Conflicts
368(1)
Some Consequences
369(1)
For Further Information
370(1)
Notes
371(1)
Human Rights: Challenges and Responses
372(31)
Conflict over Police Powers and Defendants' Rights
373(7)
Crime and the Police
373(3)
Rights of Defendants
376(4)
Conflict over the Status of Women
380(7)
Sexism: Meaning and Manifestations
380(4)
Women's Rights Movement
384(3)
Conflict over the Status of African Americans
387(14)
Black America, Yesterday and Today
387(1)
A Brief History of the Civil Rights Movement
388(9)
African American Rights in the 1990s and Beyond: Antidiscrimination or Affirmative Action?
397(4)
For Further Information
401(1)
Notes
402(1)
Part V The International Political System 403(84)
Politics among Nations
403(23)
Nature of International Politics
404(4)
State System
404(1)
Similarities to Domestic Politics
404(2)
Differences from Domestic Politics
406(2)
Characteristics of International Politics
408(4)
Some Goals of Nations' Foreign Policies
408(4)
Making Foreign Policy
412(12)
Choosing Goals, Methods, and Capabilities
412(1)
Agencies and Officials
413(1)
Some Methods of Foreign Policy
414(10)
For Further Information
424(1)
Notes
425(1)
International Political Economy
426(31)
The International Economy
426(6)
Approaches to Understanding
426(3)
Globalization
429(3)
International Economic Competitors
432(9)
Nation-states
432(4)
Rich Nations and Poor Nations
436(3)
Multinational Corporations
439(2)
Institutions of International Economic Cooperation
441(13)
Regimes
441(1)
GATT and the World Trade Organization
442(3)
European Union, NAFTA, and Other Regional Organizations
445(5)
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)
450(2)
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
452(2)
For Further Information
454(1)
Notes
455(2)
The Quest for Peace in the Thermonuclear Age
457(30)
The New World Order: Good News and Bad News
457(5)
Good News: The Cold War Is Over
457(1)
Bad News: Nuclear Weapons Are Proliferating
458(4)
Approaches to Peace within the State System
462(10)
Balance of Power
462(2)
Collective Security
464(2)
Disarmament
466(3)
Internationa Law
469(3)
Approaches to Peace through the United Nations
472(11)
Founding
473(1)
Structure
473(3)
Maintaining International Peace and Security
476(1)
Changing United Nations
477(6)
Does Humanity Have a Future?
483(1)
For Further Information
484(2)
Notes
486(1)
Photo Credits 487(1)
Index 488

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