Governing: An Introduction to Political Science / Edition 7

Governing: An Introduction to Political Science / Edition 7

by Austin Ranney
     
 

ISBN-10: 0133262162

ISBN-13: 9780133262162

Pub. Date: 08/28/1995

Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference

In a comprehensive introduction to political processes and concepts, Ranney introduces the methods and consequences of political and government systems as they apply to the readers' own life experiences. A popular classic in the field, the Eighth Edition, provides accurate, current information on all major government and political developments ranging

Overview

In a comprehensive introduction to political processes and concepts, Ranney introduces the methods and consequences of political and government systems as they apply to the readers' own life experiences. A popular classic in the field, the Eighth Edition, provides accurate, current information on all major government and political developments ranging from local concerns to the global economy. Defines and illustrates politics, policies and government procedures with a clear connection to individual citizen's lives. Explores political psychology, socialization and culture, and examines modern political ideologies. Examines the international political economy and the different efforts for global peace. For individuals with an interest in the political policies, concepts and methods of the United States and other countries, as well as, a reference for those who need to refresh their knowledge of political systems.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780133262162
Publisher:
Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
Publication date:
08/28/1995
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
448
Product dimensions:
7.30(w) x 9.55(h) x 1.08(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Part One: Politics, Governments, and People
Politics in Human Life
1(24)
What Is Politics?
1(3)
"Politics" in Everyday Conversation
1(1)
Politics as Policy Making
2(2)
Some Universal Characteristics of Politics
4(14)
Politics Is Conflict
4(1)
Group Conflict in Politics
5(3)
Tactics of Political Action
8(9)
Who Uses Which Tactics?
17(1)
Some Characteristics of Political Conflict
18(3)
Multiplicity
18(1)
Opposition
19(1)
Overlapping Memberships
20(1)
Imperfect Mobilization
20(1)
Politics and Government
21(4)
For Further Reading
23(1)
Notes
24(1)
Governments and Governing
25(20)
What Governments Do
25(2)
In Primitive Societies
25(1)
In "Advanced/Industrialized" Societies
26(1)
What Is Government?
27(1)
Government and Other Organizations
27(1)
Government Defined
27(1)
How Government Differs from Other Social Organizations
28(3)
Comprehensive Authority
28(1)
Involuntary Membership
29(1)
Authoritative Rules
29(1)
Legitimate Monopoly of Overwhelming Force
30(1)
Highest Stakes
30(1)
Basic Tasks and Tools of Government
31(3)
Interest Articulation
31(1)
Interest Aggregation
32(1)
Coercion and Compromise
32(2)
An Illustration: The American Conflict over Abortion
34(5)
The "Pro-life" Side
35(1)
The "Pro-choice" Side
35(2)
Where Things Stand
37(1)
Some Lessons for the Study of Governing
38(1)
Nationalism and the Birth and Death of Nations
39(6)
Nature of Nations
39(2)
The Birth of Nations
41(1)
The Death of Nations
41(2)
For Further Reading
43(1)
Notes
44(1)
Political Psychology, Socialization, and Culture
45(25)
Political Psychology: What Forms People's Political Beliefs and Behavior?
45(10)
Biological Nature and Needs
45(1)
Psychological Processes and Cognitive Maps
46(2)
Group Memberships and Pressures to Conform
48(7)
Political Socialization
55(7)
Concept
55(1)
Profile of the Developing Political Self
55(3)
Agents of Socialization
58(4)
Political Culture
62(8)
Components
62(2)
Some Differences Among Political Cultures
64(3)
For Further Reading
67(2)
Notes
69(1)
Modern Political Ideologies
70(23)
Nature of Ideologies
70(4)
What Is an Ideology?
70(1)
Intellectual Components of an Ideology
71(2)
Types of Ideologies
73(1)
Ideologies of Limits on Government
74(5)
Constitutionalism and Classical Liberalism
74(3)
Totalitarianism
77(2)
Ideologies of Economic Control
79(8)
Capitalism and Laissez Faire
79(2)
Socialism
81(6)
Political Ideologies, American Style
87(6)
Modern American Liberalism
88(1)
Modern American Conservatism
89(2)
For Further Reading
91(1)
Notes
92(1)
Democracy and Authoritarianism: Principles and Models
93(20)
Principles for a Working Definition of Democracy
94(5)
Popular Sovereignty
94(1)
Political Equality
95(1)
Popular Consultation
96(1)
Majority Rule
96(3)
Models of Democracy
99(6)
The Nature and Uses of Models in Social Science
99(3)
Participatory and Accountable-Elites Models
102(2)
Presidential and Parliamentary Models
104(1)
Majoritarian and Consensual Modes
104(1)
Authoritarianism and Dictatorship
105(4)
Classifying Actual Governments
109(1)
Surge of Democracy
110(3)
For Further Reading
111(1)
Notes
112(1)
Part Two: Politics Outside Formal Governments
Public Opinion in Democratic Systems
113(19)
Nature of Public Opinion
114(9)
Definition
114(1)
Dimensions of Public Opinion: Preference and Intensity
115(1)
Measurement by Public Opinion Polls
116(7)
Opinion Distributions in Western Democracies
123(7)
What Concerns People?
123(2)
Ideology
125(2)
Domestic Policy: Economic and Social Responsibilities of Government
127(3)
Foreign Policy
130(1)
Conclusion
130(2)
For Further Reading
131(1)
Notes
131(1)
Political Communication
132(26)
Nature of Political Communication
133(3)
What Is Communication?
133(1)
Elements of Political Communication
134(2)
Mass Communications Media
136(10)
Television
136(8)
Newspapers
144(2)
Radio
146(1)
Political Impact of Mass Communications
146(9)
On Mass Publics
146(5)
On Political and Governmental Leaders
151(4)
Communications Revolutions, Past and Future
155(3)
For Further Reading
156(1)
Notes
157(1)
The Electoral Process
158(30)
Elections in Democratic Systems
158(10)
Essential Characteristics of Free Elections
159(1)
Qualifications for Voting
160(2)
Nonvoting and Compulsory Voting
162(3)
Nominations and Candidate Selection
165(3)
Principal Democratic Electoral Systems
168(9)
Single-Member-District Systems
168(2)
Multi-Member-Proportional Systems
170(3)
Political Effects of Electoral Systems
173(2)
The German Hybrid
175(2)
Apportionment of Electoral Districts
177(2)
Problems
177(1)
Procedures
178(1)
Referendum Elections
179(9)
Rationale
179(1)
Organization
180(1)
Results and Evaluation
181(5)
For Further Reading
186(1)
Notes
187(1)
Voting Behavior
188(14)
Intervening Variables in Voting Behavior
189(13)
Party Identification
191(4)
Issue Orientation
195(2)
Candidate Orientation
197(3)
For Further Reading
200(1)
Notes
201(1)
Political Parties and Party Systems
202(26)
Political Parties in Democratic Systems
202(6)
What Is a Political Party?
202(1)
Party Identification and Membership
203(3)
Principal Activities of Parties
206(2)
Differences Among Parties in Democratic Systems
208(7)
In the Nature and Role of Ideology
208(4)
In Centralization
212(1)
In Discipline
213(1)
In Cohesion
214(1)
Fractionalization of Democratic Party Systems
215(5)
Measurement: Rae's Index of Fractionalization
215(1)
Characteristics of the More Fractionalized Systems
216(3)
Characteristics of the Less Fractionalized Systems
219(1)
Authoritarian One-Party Systems
220(8)
Monoparty Systems
220(4)
Dominant Party Systems
224(2)
For Further Reading
226(1)
Notes
227(1)
Part Three: Governmental Structures, Authorities, and Processes
The Legislative Process
228(30)
Presidential And Parliamentary Democracies
228(4)
Doctrine of Separation of Powers
229(1)
Separation of Powers in Presidential Democracies
229(1)
Fusion of Powers in Parliamentary Democracies
230(1)
Crossing Boundaries
231(1)
Functions of Legislatures
232(4)
Statute Making
232(1)
Constitution Making and Amending
232(1)
Electoral Functions
233(1)
Financial Functions
233(1)
Quasi-Executive Functions
233(1)
Quasi-Judicial Functions
234(1)
Investigative Functions
235(1)
Informational Functions
235(1)
Structure and Procedures of Legislatures
236(7)
Number of Houses
236(1)
Main Steps in Handling Bills
237(3)
Legislative Committees
240(2)
Party Organization
242(1)
Legislative Ways of Life
243(6)
Party Soldiers
244(2)
Independent Operators
246(3)
Representative-Constituent Relationships
249(3)
Mandate Theory
249(1)
Independence Theory
249(2)
American Attitudes toward Congress and Members of Congress
251(1)
Changing Roles of Democratic Legislatures
252(6)
"Transformative" versus "Arena" Legislatures
253(1)
Growth as Checkers, Revisers, and Overseers
253(2)
For Further Reading
255(1)
Notes
256(2)
The Executive Process
258(30)
What Is an Executive?
258(1)
Executive as the Core of Government
258(1)
Two Fundamental Executive Roles
259(1)
Executive as Chief of State
259(5)
Principal Types
259(2)
Principal Functions
261(2)
Separation and Mingling of Roles
263(1)
President as Head of Government
264(14)
Presidents and Prime Ministers
264(1)
U.S. Presidential Roles
265(8)
Power and Problems of the U.S. President
273(2)
Presidency of France
275(2)
Other Presidencies
277(1)
Prime Minister as Head of Government
278(7)
Structure of the British Executive
278(1)
Cabinet Status, Functions, and Powers
279(2)
Prime Minister and Cabinet
281(1)
Prime Ministers in Coalition Governments
282(3)
Executive in Nondemocratic Systems
285(3)
For Further Reading
285(1)
Notes
286(2)
The Administrative Process
288(31)
Distinction Between Executives and Administrators
288(2)
In Functions
288(1)
In Selection and Tenure
289(1)
What About "Bureaucracy"?
289(1)
Formal Status of Administrative Agencies
290(10)
Size
290(1)
Structure
291(2)
Formal Administrative Functions
293(1)
Regulating
294(3)
Selection and Status of Administrators
297(3)
Politics, Administration, and Policy Making
300(9)
Dichotomy Between Politics and Administration
300(3)
Policy Making by Administrators
303(6)
"Administocracy" in a Democracy: Problem and Solutions
309(7)
The Problem: Making Administrators Responsible
309(1)
Solutions
310(6)
Conclusions
316(3)
For Further Reading
317(1)
Notes
317(2)
Law and the Judicial Process
319(30)
Rules People Live By
320(2)
Moral Precepts
320(1)
Customs
320(1)
Laws
320(2)
Types of Law
322(3)
Classified by Source
322(2)
Classified by Subject Matter
324(1)
Court Structures in Democratic Nations
325(11)
Special Judicial Functions
325(2)
Two Basic Systems of Justice
327(2)
Hierarchies of Appeal
329(3)
Selection and Tenure of Judges
332(3)
Official Relationships with Legislatures and Executives
335(1)
Role of Judges in Governing
336(13)
Mechanical View
337(3)
Judicial Legislation
340(3)
Judges in the Political Process
343(4)
For Further Reading
347(1)
Notes
348(1)
Part Four: Public Policies and Their Impacts
Human Rights: Principles and Problems
349(18)
Philosophical Foundations for Human Rights
349(5)
Basic Terms
349(1)
Evolving Idea of Human Rights
350(4)
Rights Formally Guaranteed by Constitutions
354(2)
Limitations on Government
354(1)
Obligations of Government
355(1)
Choices in the Implementation of Human Rights
356(8)
Freedom versus Security
359(2)
The Rights of Some versus Rights of Others
361(3)
Human Rights in the Political Process
364(3)
Human Rights Conflicts as Political Conflicts
364(1)
Some Consequences
365(1)
For Further Reading
366(1)
Notes
366(1)
Human Rights: Challenges and Responses
367(37)
Conflict over Police Powers and Defendants' Rights
368(7)
Crime and the Police
368(3)
Rights of Defendants
371(4)
Conflict over the Status of Women
375(7)
Sexism: Meaning and Manifestations
375(3)
The Women's Rights Movement
378(4)
Conflict over the Status of African-Americans
382(14)
Black America, Yesterday and Today
382(1)
A Brief History of the Civil Rights Movement
383(9)
African-American Rights in the 1980s: Antidiscrimination or Affirmative Action?
392(4)
Apartheid in South Africa
396(8)
Background
396(1)
The Policy of Apartheid
397(1)
"Bantustans"
398(1)
The Passing of Apartheid
399(3)
For Further Reading
402(1)
Notes
403(1)
Part Five: The International Political System
Politics Among Nations
404(24)
Nature of International Politics
405(3)
State System
405(1)
Similarities to Domestic Politics
405(1)
Differences from Domestic Politics
405(3)
Characteristics of International Conflict
408(7)
Some Goals of Nations' Foreign Policies
410(5)
Making Foreign Policy
415(13)
Choosing Goals, Methods, and Capabilities
415(1)
Agencies and Officials
416(1)
Some Methods of Foreign Policy
417(10)
For Further Reading
427(1)
Notes
427(1)
The Quest for Peace in the Thermonuclear Age
428(31)
The New World Order: Good News and Bad News
428(5)
Good News: The Cold War Is Over
428(1)
Bad News: Nuclear Weapons Are Proliferating
429(4)
Approaches to Peace within the State System
433(11)
Balance of Power
434(1)
Collective Security
435(3)
Disarmament
438(2)
International Law
440(4)
Approaches to Peace through the United Nations
444(10)
Founding
445(1)
Structure
445(3)
Maintaining International Peace and Security
448(1)
Changing United Nations
449(5)
Does Humanity Have a Future?
454(5)
For Further Reading
457(1)
Notes
458(1)
Photo Credits 459(1)
Index 460

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