The Government and Politics of the European Union: Seventh Edition / Edition 7

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In this fifth edition of the leading text in its field, Neill Nugent provides comprehensive coverage and analysis of the developments occuring in the European Union. As in earlier editions, this volume presents an introduction to the origins of the Union and provides detailed analysis of the powers involved, the influence and functioning of the EU's principal institutions and political actors, as well as perspectives on major policy interests and processes. Thoroughly revised and updated, the book contains extensive new material on such matters as the Treaty of Nice, Economic and Monetary Union, the Lisbon Strategy, security and defense policy, and EU enlargement.
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Editorial Reviews

Political Studies
Neill Nugent has once again supplied us with a definitive textbook on the institutions and politics of the European Union. . . . It is a masterful effort at explaining the inexplicable and at making the opaque transparent.
European Access
In addition to being a core teaching text on the EU, the book provides a useful reference work for both academics and practitioners in the field.
Journal Of Common Market Studies
This is by far the best teaching text on the European Community. . . .
West European Politics
Nugent manages throughout to convey the complexity of the EC system without confusing the reader. In short, it is an excellent book with which it is difficult to find fault.
Government and Opposition
Well organized, well researched, and clearly written. This book answers almost every factual question that the undergraduate is likely to ask about the existing organizational structure of the Community, and the judgements that the author offers from time to time are invariably sound and sensible.
From the Publisher

Reviews of previous editions:

"Neill Nugent has once again supplied us with a definitive textbook on the institutions and politics of the European Union. However it is much more than this. It is an essential reference book for both the academic and practitioner... [and] a masterful effort at explaining the inexplicable and at making the opaque transparent." —Political Studies

"The book is well organized, well researched, and clearly written. It answers almost every factual question that the undergraduate is likely to ask about the existing organizational structure of the Community, and the judgements that the author offers from time to time are invariably sound and sensible." —Government and Opposition

"Nugent manages throughout to convey the complexity of the EC system without confusing the reader. In short, it is an excellent book with which it is difficult to find fault." —West European Politics

"...this is by far the best teaching text on the European Community that I have come across." —Journal of Common Market Studies
"Thanks to its comprehensive structure, accurate and systematic approach to untangling the complexities of integration processes and structures, and insightful evaluvation of policy outcomes. It remains an invaluable reference for students, scholars and practitioners alike." —Boyka Stefanova, Perspectives on Political Science Journal

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780230241183
  • Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
  • Publication date: 8/3/2010
  • Series: The European Union Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 432
  • Sales rank: 893,652
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.60 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

NEILL NUGENT is Professor of Politics and Jean Monnet Professor of European Integration, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK.

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Table of Contents

List of Illustrative Material

List of Abbreviations

Preface to the Seventh Edition

Part I The Historical Evolution 1

1 The Post-War Transformation of Western Europe 3

Historical Divisions 3

The inheritance 3

The background to the Second World War 4

The Post-War Transformation 5

Unbroken peace 5

A transformed agenda 6

New channels and processes 6

Explaining the Transformation, and its Nature 7

The deep roots of integration? 7

The impact of the Second World War 9

Interdependence 13

National considerations 15

Concluding Remarks 17

2 The Creation of the European Community 19

The European Coal and Steel Community 19

From the ECSC to the EEC 22

The EEC and Euratom Treaties 24

The policy concerns of the EEC Treaty 24

The policy concerns of the Euratom Treaty 25

The institutional provisions of the Treaties 26

Concluding Remarks 26

3 The Deepening of the Integration Process 27

Treaty Development 27

Development of Policy Processes 29

Development of Policies 30

Concluding Remarks 32

4 The Widening of the Integration Process 33

Enlargement via Enlargement Rounds 33

The 1973 enlargement 35

The Mediterranean enlargement 38

The EFTAn enlargement 40

The 10+2 enlargement 42

Why Has the EU Been Willing to Enlarge? 47

The Impact of Enlargements on the EU 48

Concluding Remarks 50

Part II The Evolving Treaty Framework 51

5 From Rome to Nice 53

Up to the Single European Act 54

The Single European Act 54

The Maastricht Treaty 55

The background to and the making of the Treaty 55

The contents of the Treaty 56

The Treaty of Amsterdam 59

The background to and the making of the Treaty 59

The contents of the Treaty 60

The Treaty of Nice 62

The background to and the making of the Treaty 62

The contents of the Treaty 62

Concluding Remarks 66

6 The Constitutional and Lisbon Treaties 69

The Making of the Constitutional Treaty 69

The Constitutional Convention 69

The Intergovernmental Conference 71

The Contents of the Constitutional Treaty 72

Ratifying the Constitutional Treaty 73

From the Constitutional Treaty to the Lisbon Treaty 74

The Contents of the Lisbon Treaty 78

Concluding Remarks 84

7 Treaties and the Integration Process 87

The Making of Treaties 87

Intergovernmental Conferences 87

Ratifying treaties 89

Treaties and the Nature of European Integration 90

Economics before politics 90

Flexibility 90

Incrementalism 91

Increased length and complexity 94

Variable pace 98

Interplay between supranational and national actors 98

Benefits for everybody 98

An elite-driven process 99

Concluding Remarks 100

Part III The Institutions and Political Actors of the European Union 103

8 The Commission 105

Appointment and Composition 103

The College of Commissioners 105

The Commission bureaucracy 116

Organisation 117

The Directorates General and other Services 117

The hierarchical structure 118

Decision-making mechanisms 118

Power Resources 121

Responsibilities 122

Proposer and developer of policies and legislation 122

Executive functions 125

The guardian of the legal framework 130

External representative and negotiator 133

Mediator and conciliator 134

Promoter of the general interest 135

The Varying (and Declining?) Influence of the Commission in the EU System 135

Concluding Remarks 137

9 The Council of Ministers 139

Responsibilities and Functions 139

Policy and law maker 139

Executive 141

Mediator 141

Composition 142

The ministers 142

The Committee of Permanent Representatives 144

Committees and working parties 145

The General Secretariat 147

The Operation of the Council 147

The Council Presidency 147

The hierarchical structure 151

Decision-making procedures 154

Concluding Remarks 159

10 The European Council 161

Origins and Development 161

Membership 163

The European Council President 165

The creation of the post 165

The treaty provisions on the post 165

The appointment of the first occupant of the post 166

Organisation 167

Frequency, location and length of summits 167

Preparing summits 169

Activities 171

The evolution of the European Union 173

'Constitutional' and institutional matters 173

The economic and monetary policies of the European Union 174

Enlargements 175

External relations 175

Specific internal policy issues 175

The European Council and the EU System 176

Concluding Remarks 178

11 The European Parliament 179

Powers and Influence 179

Parliament and EU legislation 179

Parliament and the EU budget 184

Control and supervision of the executive 185

Elections 190

Political Parties and the European Parliament 192

The transnational federations 192

The political groups in the European Parliament 193

National parties 198

Composition 199

The dual mandate 199

Continuity 199

Gender 199

Competence and experience 200

Organisation and Operation 200

The multi-site problem 200

Arranging parliamentary business 200

The committees of the EP 202

Plenary meetings 203

Concluding Remarks 205

12 European Union Law and the EU's Courts 207

The Need for EU Law 207

The Sources of EU Law 208

The treaties 208

EU legislation 209

Judicial interpretation 210

International law 212

The general principles of law 212

The Content of EU Law 212

The Status of EU Law 213

Direct effect 213

Primacy 213

The Court of Justice of the European Union 214

Membership 214

Organisation and numbers of cases 215

The procedure of the Courts 216

Types of Cases Before the Courts 218

Failure to fulfil an obligation 220

Application for annulment 220

Failure to act 221

Action to establish liability 222

Reference for a preliminary ruling 222

Staff cases 223

Appeals 223

The seeking of an opinion 223

The Impact and Influence of the Courts 223

Concluding Remarks 225

13 Other Institutions 227

The European Economic and Social Committee 227

Origins 227

Membership 227

Organisation 228

Functions 229

Influence 230

The Committee of the Regions 231

Origins 231

Membership, organisation, functions and powers 231

European Agencies 233

The European Investment Bank 235

Responsibilities and functions 235

Organisation 237

The importance of the EIB 237

The European Central Bank 238

The creation of the Bank 238

Objectives and tasks 238

The organisational structure of the ECB 239

Functioning 239

The Court of Auditors 240

Membership and organisation 240

Activities of the Court 241

The effectiveness of financial controls 243

14 Interests 245

Different Types 245

Subnational levels of government 245

Private and public companies 245

National interest groups 246

Eurogroups 246

Access to Decision-Makers 249

National governments 249

The Commission 250

The European Parliament 251

Which is the most appropriate lobbying channel? 251

Influence 252

Interests and EU Policy Processes 252

15 The Member States 255

National Orientations and Approaches 256

The founding member states: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands 256

The first enlargement round acceding states: Denmark, Ireland, and the UK 258

The Mediterranean round acceding states: Greece, Spain, and Portugal 259

The EFTAN round acceding states: Austria, Finland, and Sweden 259

The 10+2 round acceding states: Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia 260

Governments 261

Influencing the Commission 261

Influencing the Council 261

Parliaments 265

Courts 267

Subnational Levels of Government 268

Citizens' Views 269

Referendums 269

European Parliament elections 271

National elections 271

Public opinion 271

Political Parties 272

Interests 273

Which States Exercise Most Influence? 273

Concluding Remarks 276

Part IV Policies and Policy Processes of the European Union 277

16 Understanding EU Policies 279

The Origins of EU Policies 279

The Range and Diversity of EU Policies 281

The Varying Extent of EU Policy Involvement 282

The Varying Nature of EU Policy Involvement 283

The Regulatory Emphasis 284

Regulatory policies 285

Redistributive policies 285

Distributive policies 286

The Patchy and Somewhat Uncoordinated Nature of EU Policies 286

Concluding Remarks 288

17 Policy Processes 289

Variations in EU Processes 289

The actors 289

The channels 291

Factors Determining EU Policy Processes 291

The treaty base 291

The proposed status of the matter under consideration 291

The degree of generality or specificity of the policy issue 293

The newness, importance, controversiality, or political sensitivity of the issue in question 293

The balance of policy responsibilities between the EU and national levels 293

Circumstances and the perceptions of circumstances 293

The Four Frameworks of EU Policy Processes 294

The Community method 294

Intensive transgovernmentalism 295

Open coordination 297

Centralised decision-making 298

Recurring Characteristics of EU Policy Processes 298

Variable institutional roles and powers 298

Compromises and linkages 299

Inter-institutional cooperation 300

Difficulties in effecting radical change 301

Tactical manoeuvring 302

Different speeds 302

The Efficiency of EU Policy Processes 303

Concluding Remarks 306

18 Making and Applying EU Legislation 307

The EU's Legislative Procedures 308

The consultation procedure 310

The ordinary legislative procedure 314

The consent procedure 319

EU Legislation After Adoption 319

The need for additional legislation 320

The need to transpose legislation 320

The need to apply legislation 320

Concluding Remarks 321

19 Internal Policies 323

Establishing the Internal Market 323

1 The Common Customs Tariff 325

2 The free movement of goods, persons, services and capital between the member states 325

3 The approximation of laws and the principle of mutual recognition 326

4 Competition policy 327

Problems in 'completing' the internal market 328

Macroeconomic and Financial Policies 330

The background to and creation of Economic and Monetary Union 330

The nature of Economic and Monetary Union 332

The significance of Economic and Monetary Union 334

Functional Policies 335

Area of freedom, security and justice policies 335

Cohesion policy 339

Social, employment, and economic growth policies 340

Energy policy 343

Research and innovation policy 344

Environmental policy 346

Sectoral Policies 350

Fishing 350

Shipbuilding 350

Concluding Remarks 352

20 Agricultural Policy and Policy Processes 353

The Common Agricultural Policy in Context 353

What is Special about Agriculture? 354

The distinctive nature of agriculture 354

Political factors 355

How the Common Agricultural Policy Works 358

A single internal market 359

Community preference 361

Joint financing 362

Allowance for national variations 362

The Impact and Effects of the Common Agricultural Policy 363

Policy Processes 364

Commission initiation and formulation: driving for reform 364

Council decision-making, and control problems for the Agriculture Council 366

The role of the European Parliament 368

Management and implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy 368

Concluding Remarks 370

21 External Relations 371

External Trade 371

The EU in the world trading system 371

Trade policies 371

Trade and trade-dominated agreements 372

Policy processes 375

Foreign and Defence Policies 376

Resources and problems with their usage 376

The evolution of the EU's foreign and defence policies 378

Policy aims 383

Policy instruments 385

Policy processes 387

Development Policy 393

Policy content 394

Policy processes 395

The External Dimension of Internal Policies 396

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