Government in America: People, Politics and Policy / Edition 7

Government in America: People, Politics and Policy / Edition 7

by George C. C. Edwards, Martin P. Wattenberg, Robert L. Lineberry, Martin P. Wattenberg
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0673524426

ISBN-13: 9780673524423

Pub. Date: 10/01/1995

Publisher: Longman Publishing Group


Framing its content within a resonant “politics matters” theme and emphasizing public policy throughout, this accessible text illustrates the impact that government has on the daily lives of each and every American.


Through engaging and interactive boxed features and a focus on the issues that matter to most, this practical

Overview


Framing its content within a resonant “politics matters” theme and emphasizing public policy throughout, this accessible text illustrates the impact that government has on the daily lives of each and every American.


Through engaging and interactive boxed features and a focus on the issues that matter to most, this practical text motivates readers to become active participants in our political system, and helps overcome public apathy toward government.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780673524423
Publisher:
Longman Publishing Group
Publication date:
10/01/1995
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
688

Table of Contents


Preface     xix
Tools for Understanding Government in America     xxvii
About the Authors     xxviv
Introducing Government in America     2
Issues of the Times: How Can Young People's Interest in Politics Be Increased?     8
Government     10
Politics     12
The Policymaking System     13
People Shape Policy     13
Policies Impact People     14
Democracy     16
Defining Democracy     16
Traditional Democratic Theory     16
Three Contemporary Theories of American Democracy     17
Challenges to Democracy     19
Preview Questions About Democracy     21
The Scope of Government in America     21
How Active Is American Government?     22
A Comparative Perspective     23
American Individualism     23
Preview Questions About the Scope of Government     24
Summary     25
Key Terms
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Constitutional Foundations
The Constitution     28
The Origins of the Constitution     30
The Road to Revolution     30
Declaring Independence     31
The English Heritage: The Power of Ideas     32
Jefferson's Handiwork: The American Creed     33
Winning Independence     33
The "Conservative" Revolution     34
The Government That Failed: 1776-1787     35
The Articles of Confederation     35
Changes in the States     36
Economic Turmoil     36
Shays' Rebellion     37
The Aborted Annapolis Meeting     37
Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention     38
Gentlemen in Philadelphia     38
Philosophy into Action     38
The Agenda in Philadelphia     40
The Equality Issues     41
The Economic Issues     43
The Individual Rights Issues     45
The Madisonian Model     45
Thwarting Tyranny of the Majority     45
Making a Difference: James Madison     46
The Constitutional Republic     48
The End of the Beginning     48
Ratifying the Constitution     48
Federalists and Anti-Federalists     49
Ratification     52
Constitutional Change     52
The Formal Amending Process      52
America in Perspective: Democracy Without a Constitution     53
The Informal Process of Constitutional Change     54
You Are the Policymaker: How Frequently Should We Amend the Constitution?     55
How You Can Make a Difference: Amending the Constitution     56
The Importance of Flexibility     57
Understanding the Constitution     58
The Constitution and Democracy     58
Young People and Politics: Lowering the Voting Age     59
Issues of the Times: How Can We Make History Come Alive?     60
The Constitution and the Scope of Government     62
Summary     62
Key Terms
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Federalism     66
Defining Federalism     68
What Is Federalism?     68
America in Perspective: Why Federalism?     69
Why Is Federalism So Important?     69
Making a Difference: Candy Lightner     71
How You Can Make a Difference: Drinking Age Laws     71
The Constitutional Basis of Federalism     71
The Division of Power     72
Establishing National Supremacy     74
States' Obligations to Each Other     76
Intergovernmental Relations Today     78
From Dual to Cooperative Federalism     78
Young People and Politics: Federal Support for Colleges and Universities     80
Fiscal Federalism     82
Issues of the Times: The Distribution of Federal Dollars     86
Understanding Federalism     88
Federalism and Democracy     89
You Are the Policymaker: Should Whether You Live Depend on Where You Live?     90
Federalism and the Scope of the National Government     92
Summary     93
Key Terms
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Civil Liberties and Public Policy     96
The Bill of Rights - Then and Now     98
The Bill of Rights and the States     99
Freedom of Religion     100
The Establishment Clause     100
The Free Exercise Clause     104
Freedom of Expression     105
You Are the Judge: The Case of Animal Sacrifices     106
Prior Restraint     106
Free Speech and Public Order     107
Issues of the Times: Should Universities Regulate Hate Speech?     108
You Are the Judge: The Case of the Purloined Pentagon Papers     110
America in Perspective: Civil Liberties in Britain     111
Free Press and Fair Trials     112
Obscenity     113
Libel and Slander     115
You Are the Judge: The Case of the Drive-in Theater     116
Symbolic Speech     117
Commercial Speech     117
Regulation of the Public Airwaves     118
Freedom of Assembly     119
You Are the Judge: The Case of the Nazis' March in Skokie     120
Defendants' Rights     120
Interpreting Defendants' Rights     121
Searches and Seizures     121
You Are the Judge: The Case of Ms. Montoya     123
Self-Incrimination     123
The Right to Counsel     125
You Are the Judge: The Case of the Dirty Old Man     125
Making a Difference: Clarence Gideon     126
Trials     126
Cruel and Unusual Punishment     127
You Are the Judge: The Case of the First Offender     128
Young People and Politics: College Students Help Prevent Wrongful Deaths     129
The Right to Privacy     129
Is There a Right to Privacy?     129
How You Can Make a Difference: Internet Privacy     130
Controversy over Abortion      131
Understanding Civil Liberties     132
Civil Liberties and Democracy     133
Civil Liberties and the Scope of Government     133
Summary     134
Key Terms
Key Cases
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Civil Rights and Public Policy     138
Racial Equality: Two Centuries of Struggle     140
Conceptions of Equality     140
Early American Views of Equality     141
The Constitution and Inequality     141
Race, the Constitution, and Public Policy     143
The Era of Slavery     143
The Era of Reconstruction and Resegregation     144
The Era of Civil Rights     145
Young People and Politics: Freedom Riders     148
Getting and Using the Right To Vote     149
Other Minority Groups     152
Women, the Constitution, and Public Policy     155
The Battle for the Vote     155
The "Doldrums": 1920-1960     156
The Second Feminist Wave     156
Making a Difference: Sally Reed     157
Women in the Workplace     157
Wage Discrimination and Comparable Worth     159
Women in the Military      160
You Are the Judge: Is Male-Only Draft Registration Gender Discrimination?     161
Sexual Harassment     161
America in Perspective: Mrs. In-the-Back-of-the-House Goes to Parliament     162
Newly Active Groups Under the Civil Rights Umbrella     163
Civil Rights and the Graying of America     163
Civil Rights and People With Disabilities     163
Gay and Lesbian Rights     164
Affirmative Action     166
Issues of the Times: Affirmative Action     168
How You Can Make a Difference: Influencing Affirmative Action     170
You Are the Judge: The Case of the Santa Clara Dispatcher     171
Understanding Civil Rights and Public Policy     172
Civil Rights and Democracy     172
Civil Rights and the Scope of Government     172
Summary     173
Key Terms
Key Cases
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People and Politics
Public Opinion and Political Action     176
The American People     178
The Immigrant Society     178
The American Melting Pot     179
You Are the Policymaker: Do We Need to Get Tougher with Illegal Immigrants?     182
The Regional Shift     183
The Graying of America     183
How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization     184
The Process of Political Socialization     185
Political Learning over a Lifetime     187
Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information     188
How Polls Are Conducted     188
Issues of the Times: Does Conducting Surveys by Telephone Still Make Sense?     190
The Role of Polls in American Democracy     192
What Polls Reveal About Americans' Political Information     193
America in Perspective: Citizens Show Little Knowledge of Geography     195
The Decline of Trust in Government     196
What Americans Value: Political Ideologies     197
Who Are the Liberals and Conservatives?     197
Young People and Politics: How Young and Old People Compare on the Issues     198
Do People Think in Ideological Terms?     199
How Americans Participate in Politics     200
Conventional Participation     201
Protest as Participation     202
Making a Difference: Granny D and Her Walk for Campaign Finance Reform     202
How You Can Make a Difference: Getting Involved     204
Class, Inequality, and Participation      205
Understanding Public Opinion and Political Action     205
Public Attitudes Toward the Scope of Government     205
Democracy, Public Opinion, and Political Action     206
Summary     207
Key Terms
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The Mass Media and the Political Agenda     210
The Mass Media Today     212
America in Perspective: How Campaign Advertising Compares Across Five Nations     213
The Development of Media Politics     214
The Print Media     216
The Broadcast Media     218
Government Regulation of the Broadcast Media     219
Narrowcasting: Cable TV and the Internet     220
Private Control of the Media     220
Making a Difference: Matt Drudge     220
Young People and Politics: How the Under-Thirty Crowd Learns From Different Media Sources Compared to Older Americans     221
Reporting the News     222
How You Can Make a Difference: The Internet and Political Action     223
Finding the News     223
Presenting the News     225
Bias in the News     227
Issues of the Times: Has Technology Really Improved the Quality of Political Reporting?     228
You Are the Policymaker: Should the Networks Have To Provide Free Air Time to Presidential Candidates?     230
The News and Public Opinion     231
The Media's Agenda-Setting Function     233
Understanding the Mass Media     234
The Media and the Scope of Government     234
Individualism and the Media     234
Democracy and the Media     235
Summary     236
Key Terms
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Political Parties     238
The Meaning of Party     240
Tasks of the Parties     241
Parties, Voters, and Policy: The Downs Model     241
The Party in the Electorate     243
Young People and Politics: The Parties Face an Independent Youth     244
The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington     245
Local Parties     245
The 50 State Party Systems     245
You Are the Policymaker: Was the Blanket Primary a Good Idea?     247
The National Party Organizations     247
Issues of the Times: Should the Political Parties Be Gathering Data about You?     248
Making a Difference: Maria Cino and the Republican Party     250
The Party in Government: Promises and Policy     250
Party Eras in American History     251
1796-1824: The First Party System     253
1828-1856: Jackson and the Democrats Versus the Whigs     253
1860-1928: The Two Republican Eras     254
1932-1964: The New Deal Coalition     254
1968-Present: The Era of Divided Party Government     256
Third Parties: Their Impact on American Politics     258
America in Perspective: Multiparty Systems in Other Countries     260
Understanding Political Parties     261
Democracy and Responsible Party Government     261
How You Can Make a Difference: Minor Political Parties     261
American Political Parties and the Scope of Government     262
Is the Party Over?     263
Summary     263
Key Terms
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Nominations and Campaigns     266
The Nomination Game     268
Deciding To Run     268
Competing for Delegates     268
Issue of the Times: Will the Presidential Candidates Pay Any Attention to California in 2008?     272
You Are the Policymaker: National and Regional Presidential Primary Proposals     276
The Convention Send-off      276
The Campaign Game     279
The High-Tech Media Campaign     279
Organizing the Campaign     281
Making a Difference: Mary Beth Cahill and the Kerry Campaign     282
Money and Campaigning     282
Young People and Politics: Declining Interest in Working in Campaigns     283
The Maze of Campaign Finance Reforms     283
How You Can Make a Difference: Volunteering for Political Campaigns     284
The Proliferation of PACs     286
Are Campaigns Too Expensive?     288
The Impact of Campaigns     289
America in Perspective: Arlene McCarthy's Election to the European Parliament     290
Understanding Nominations and Campaigns     291
Are Nominations and Campaigns Too Democratic?     291
Do Big Campaigns Lead to an Increased Scope of Government?     292
Summary     293
Key Terms
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Elections and Voting Behavior     296
How American Elections Work     298
Making a Difference: Barbara Anderson and the Politics of Tax Relief in Massachusetts     299
A Tale of Three Elections     299
1800: The First Electoral Transfer of Power      299
1896: A Bitter Fight over Economic Interests     300
2004: The Ratification of a Polarizing Presidency     301
Whether To Vote: A Citizen's First Choice     304
Deciding Whether To Vote     305
Issues of the Times: Should Noncitizen Permanent Residents Be Allowed To Vote in Local Elections?     306
Registering To Vote     308
America in Perspective: Why Turnout in the United States Is So Low Compared to Other Countries     308
You Are the Policymaker: Registering and Voting by E-mail?     309
Who Votes?     309
How Americans Vote: Explaining Citizens' Decisions     311
How You Can Make a Difference: Voter Registration and Voting     312
Party Identification     312
Young People and Politics: How Young Voters Have Consistently Been More Supportive of Third Party Candidates     314
Candidate Evaluations: How Americans See the Candidates     314
Policy Voting     315
The Last Battle: The Electoral College     316
Understanding Elections and Voting Behavior     317
Democracy and Elections     317
Elections and the Scope of Government     319
Summary     320
Key Terms
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Interest Groups     322
The Role of Interest Groups     324
Theories of Interest Group Politics     325
America in Perspective: Interest Groups as Parties in Other Democracies     326
Pluralism and Group Theory     326
Elites and the Denial of Pluralism     327
Hyperpluralism and Interest Group Liberalism     328
What Makes an Interest Group Successful?     329
The Surprising Ineffectiveness of Large Groups     329
Intensity     331
Financial Resources     331
Young People and Politics: The Virginia 21 Coalition     332
The Interest Group Explosion     333
How Groups Try To Shape Policy     334
Lobbying     334
Issues of the Times: How Much Contact With Lobbyists Is Too Much?     336
Electioneering     338
Litigation     339
You Are the Policymaker: Should PACs Be Eliminated?     340
Going Public     341
Types of Interest Groups     342
Economic Interests     342
Environmental Interests     344
Making a Difference: Danny Seo     345
Equality Interests      345
Consumers and Public Interest Lobbies     346
Understanding Interest Groups     347
Interest Groups and Democracy     347
How You Can Make a Difference: Interest Groups     348
Interest Groups and the Scope of Government     349
Summary     349
Key Terms
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The Policymakers
Congress     352
The Representatives and Senators     354
The Job     354
The Members     355
Congressional Elections     357
Who Wins Elections?     358
The Advantages of Incumbency     359
The Role of Party Identification     362
Defeating Incumbents     362
Open Seats     363
Stability and Change     363
How Congress Is Organized To Make Policy     363
You Are the Policymaker: Should We Impose Term Limits on Members of Congress?     364
American Bicameralism     364
Congressional Leadership     366
The Committees and Subcommittees     368
Caucuses: The Informal Organization of Congress     372
Congressional Staff     373
Young People and Politics: Are Opportunities to Intern Biased in Favor of the Wealthy?     374
Making a Difference: Tony Battista     375
The Congressional Process     375
Presidents and Congress: Partners and Protagonists     376
Party, Constituency, and Ideology     378
Issues of the Times: Polarized Politics in Congress     380
Lobbyists and Interest Groups     382
Understanding Congress     383
Congress and Democracy     383
How You Can Make a Difference: Gun Control     384
America in Perspective: Governing in the Knesset     385
Congress and the Scope of Government     386
Summary     386
Key Terms
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The Presidency     390
The Presidents     392
Great Expectations     392
Who They Are     392
How They Got There     393
You Are the Policymaker: Should President Clinton Have Been Convicted?     397
Presidential Powers     397
America in Perspective: President or Prime Minister?     398
Constitutional Powers     398
The Expansion of Power     399
Perspectives on Presidential Power     399
Running the Government: The Chief Executive     400
The Vice President     401
The Cabinet     401
The Executive Office     403
The White House Staff     404
The First Lady     406
Presidential Leadership of Congress: The Politics of Shared Powers     407
Chief Legislator     407
Party Leadership     408
Public Support     411
Legislative Skills     413
The President and National Security Policy     415
Chief Diplomat     415
Commander in Chief     416
War Powers     417
Crisis Manager     418
Working With Congress     419
Power from the People: The Public Presidency     420
Going Public     420
Presidential Approval     421
Policy Support     423
Young People and Politics: The Generation Gap in Watching the President     424
Mobilizing the Public     425
The President and the Press     425
Making a Difference: Helen Thomas     427
Issues of the Times: Who Controls White House News?     428
Understanding the American Presidency     430
The Presidency and Democracy     430
The Presidency and the Scope of Government     430
How You Can Make a Difference: The Fast Track to the White House     431
Summary     431
Key Terms
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The Congress, the President, and the Budget: The Politics of Taxing and Spending     434
Sources of Federal Revenue     436
Income Tax     436
Issues of the Times: Who Should Bear the Burden of Taxes?     438
Social Insurance Taxes     440
Borrowing     440
Taxes and Public Policy     442
Young People and Politics: Education and the Federal Tax Code     444
America in Perspective: How Much Is Too Much?     445
Making a Difference: Robert McIntyre     446
Federal Expenditures     446
Big Governments, Big Budgets     447
America in Perspective: How Big Is Too Big?     448
The Rise and Decline of the National Security State     448
The Rise of the Social Service State     450
Incrementalism     452
"Uncontrollable" Expenditures     453
The Budgetary Process     453
Budgetary Politics     454
The President's Budget     455
Congress and the Budget     456
You Are the Policymaker: Balancing hire Budget     460
Understanding Budgeting     460
Democracy and Budgeting     460
How You Can Make a Difference: The Federal Government and Student Loans     462
The Budget and the Scope of Government     463
Summary     463
Key Terms
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The Federal Bureaucracy     466
The Bureaucrats     468
Some Bureaucratic Myths and Realities     468
Who They Are and How They Got There     470
The Other Route to Federal Jobs: Recruiting from the Plum Book     473
Issues of the Times: Managing the Federal Bureaucracy     474
How Bureaucracies Are Organized     476
The Cabinet Departments     476
The Regulatory Agencies     479
The Government Corporations     480
The Independent Executive Agencies     480
Bureaucracies as Implementors     480
What Implementation Means     480
Why the Best-Laid Plans Sometimes Flunk the Implementation Test     481
Young People and Politics: Drug Offenses and Financial Aid      482
Making a Difference: Harry Carey and Sara Pratt     485
A Case Study: The Voting Rights Act of 1965     488
How You Can Make a Difference: NASA     489
Bureaucracies as Regulators     490
Regulation in the Economy and in Everyday Life     490
Regulation: How It Grew, How It Works     492
You Are the Policymaker: How Should We Regulate?     493
Toward Deregulation     493
Understanding Bureaucracies     494
Bureaucracy and Democracy     494
America in Perspective: Influencing Independent Agencies     495
Bureaucracy and the Scope of Government     499
Summary     499
Key Terms
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The Federal Courts     502
The Nature of the Judicial System     504
Participants in the Judicial System     504
Making a Difference: Thurgood Marshall     506
The Structure of the Federal Judicial System     506
District Courts     507
Courts of Appeal     508
The Supreme Court     509
The Politics of Judicial Selection     511
The Lower Courts     511
The Supreme Court      512
The Backgrounds of Judges and Justices     515
The Courts as Policymakers     519
Accepting Cases     520
Making Decisions     521
You Are the Policymaker: The Debate over Original Intentions     524
Implementing Court Decisions     525
The Courts and the Policy Agenda     526
A Historical Review     526
Young People and Politics: The Supreme Court Is Closer than You Think     527
Understanding the Courts     531
The Courts and Democracy     531
How You Can Make a Difference: Teen Court     532
What Courts Should Do: The Scope of Judicial Power     532
America in Perspective: Courts and Culture     533
Issues of the Times: How Should the Courts Interpret the Law?     536
Summary     535
Key Terms
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Policies
Economic Policymaking     540
Government, Politics, and the Economy     542
Economic Policy at Work: An Illustration     542
You Are the Judge: Is It OK for a Company To Discriminate Against Younger Workers?     544
"It's the Economy, Stupid": Voters, Politicians, and Economic Policy     545
Two Major Worries: Unemployment and Inflation     546
Young People and Politics: Unemployment and Young Workers     547
Policies for Controlling the Economy     548
Monetary Policy and "The Fed"     548
Fiscal Policy of Presidents and Parties     549
Issues of the Times: Should the Government Help Create Jobs?     550
How You Can Make a Difference: Fair Lending Practices     552
Why It Is Hard To Control the Economy     554
Politics, Policy, and the International Economy     554
Making a Difference: Mike Emmons     555
Arenas of Economic Policymaking     555
Business and Public Policy     556
Consumer Policy: The Rise of the Consumer Lobby     557
Labor and Government     557
Understanding Economic Policymaking     558
America in Perspective: China, Trade, and the Internet     559
Democracy and Economic Policymaking     559
Economic Policymaking and the Scope of Government     560
Summary     560
Key Terms
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Social Welfare Policymaking     562
What Is Social Policy and Why Is It So Controversial?     564
Income, Poverty, and Public Policy     565
Who's Getting What?     566
Who's Poor in America?     567
Making a Difference: Mollie Orshansky and the Origins of the Poverty Threshold     568
What Part Does Government Play?     569
Helping the Poor? Social Policy and Poverty     572
"Welfare" as We Knew It     572
Ending Welfare as We Knew It: The Welfare Reforms of 1996     572
You Are the Policymaker: Should the Government Promote Marriage?     574
Living on Borrowed Time: Social Security     574
The New Deal, the Elderly, and the Growth of Social Security     575
The Future of Social Security     576
Young People and Politics: Social Security and UFOs     578
Social Welfare Policy Elsewhere     579
Understanding Social Welfare Policy     579
Social Welfare Policy and the Scope of Government     579
Issues of the Times: Should We Privatize Social Security?     580
American in Perspective: Family Policies Here and in Western Europe     582
Democracy and Social Welfare     582
How You Can Make a Difference: Social Security Reform     583
Summary     583
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Policymaking for Health Care and the Environment     586
Health Care Policy     588
The Health of Americans     588
America in Perspective: We Pay a Lot for Health Care, but What Do We Get for the Investment?     588
The Cost of Health Care     589
Uneven Coverage, Uneven Care     589
Young People and Politics: Health Insurance, Emergency Rooms, and Young Americans     591
The Role of Government in Health Care     592
Policymaking for Health Care     594
Issues of the Times: Should the Government Negotiate Drug Prices?     596
How You Can Make a Difference: Health Care     599
Environmental Policy     600
Making a Difference: Robert Bullard     600
Environmental Policies in America     601
You Are the Policymaker: How Much Should We Do To Save a Species? The Florida Manatee     604
Energy Policy     604
Energy Sources and Energy Politics     604
The Global Warming Debate Heats Up     606
Groups, Energy, and the Environment     607
Understanding Health Care and Environmental Policy     608
Democracy, Health Care, and Environmental Policy     609
The Scope of Government and Health Care and Environmental Policy     610
Summary     610
Key Terms
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National Security Policymaking     612
American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers     614
Instruments of Foreign Policy     614
Actors on the World Stage     615
Making a Difference: Jody Williams     617
The Policymakers     617
Issues of the Times: Managing Crises     620
American Foreign Policy: An Overview     623
The Cold War     624
The Era of Detente     626
The Reagan Rearmament     628
The Final Thaw in the Cold War     628
You Are the Policymaker: Defending Human Rights     630
The War on Terrorism     630
Afghanistan and Iraq     631
The Politics of Defense Policy     632
Defense Spending     633
Personnel     634
Weapons     634
Reforming Defense Policy     636
The New Global Agenda     636
The Decreasing Role of Military Power     637
Nuclear Proliferation     638
The International Economy     640
Young People and Politics: Embracing Globalization     641
America in Perspective: Ranking Largess     645
Understanding National Security Policymaking     645
National Security Policymaking and Democracy     645
How You Can Make a Difference: Getting Involved in the Foreign Policy Process     646
National Security Policymaking and the Scope of Government     647
Summary     647
Key Terms
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State and Local Government
The New Face of State and Local Government     650
State Constitutions     653
Amending State Constitutions     654
State Elections     655
Gubernatorial Elections     655
State Legislative Elections     656
The Changing Face of State Elected Officials     660
Making a Difference: Rep. Tammy Baldwin     661
Governors and the Executive Branch     661
The Job of Governor     662
Other Executive Officers     664
State Legislatures     665
State Court Systems     668
State Court Organization     668
Selecting Judges     669
Direct Democracy     670
State and Local Government Relations      673
How You Can Make a Difference: Direct Democracy     673
Local Governments     674
Young People and Politics: Public Service Through Elective Office     675
Types of Local Government     676
Fragmentation, Cooperation, and Competition     679
America in Perspective: Urban Planning in the European Union and the United States     680
State and Local Finance Policy     682
Issues of the Times: Paying for Homeland Security in the States     684
Understanding State and Local Governments     686
Democracy at the Subnational Level     686
You Are the Policymaker: Should Your State Take a Chance on Gambling?     687
The Scope of Subnational Government     688
Summary     688
Key Terms
Internet Resources
Get Connected
For Further Reading
Appendix     692
Glossary     714
Notes     732
Key Terms in Spanish     749
Acknowledgments     754
Index     757

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