Great Philosophical Arguments: An Introduction to Philosophy

Great Philosophical Arguments: An Introduction to Philosophy

by Lewis Vaughn
     
 


A great deal of the satisfaction of studying philosophy lies in exploring its landmark arguments. Working from this premise, Great Philosophical Arguments: An Introduction to Philosophy focuses on the debates that define and drive the field. Editor Lewis Vaughn presents seventy-eight readings--both classic selections and contemporary works--that areSee more details below

Overview


A great deal of the satisfaction of studying philosophy lies in exploring its landmark arguments. Working from this premise, Great Philosophical Arguments: An Introduction to Philosophy focuses on the debates that define and drive the field. Editor Lewis Vaughn presents seventy-eight readings--both classic selections and contemporary works--that are topically organized into six chapters: the existence of God, knowledge and skepticism, mind and body, free will and determinism, ethics, and contemporary ethical debates. The readings are grouped by argument into pro/con dialogues within each chapter. Each of the thirty-four arguments is introduced with a brief outline, which is followed by two to four essays presenting the classic statement of the argument, critiques and defenses of it, and discussions of related debates.

FEATURES:

* A substantial introductory chapter and extensive chapter introductions
* Essay questions at the end of each argument section and chapter
* Pedagogical features including boldfaced key terms, biographical text boxes, suggestions for further reading, and a glossary
* An appendix on how to read and write argumentative essays
* An Instructor's Manual and Test Bank on CD featuring chapter summaries, reading summaries, PowerPoint-based lecture outlines, and test questions
* A Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/vaughn containing study questions, interactive quizzes, flashcards, and helpful links

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780195342604
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date:
07/11/2011
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
688
Sales rank:
610,533
Product dimensions:
7.40(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

Preface
CHAPTER 1. PHILOSOPHICAL WORK
Back to Basics
The Consolations of Philosophy
Box: Socrates
Philosophy and Arguments
Key Terms
Plato: Socrates' Examined Life
Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy
Chapter 1. Essay Questions
CHAPTER 2. THE EXISTENCE OF GOD
Key Terms
1. The Cosmological Argument
Box: Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica
J.L. Mackie: Critique of Cosmological Arguments
William Lane Craig: The Kalam Cosmological Argument
Avicenna: On the Nature of God
Argument 1. Essay Questions
2. The Design Argument from Analogy
William Paley: The Watch and the Watchmaker
David Hume: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
Argument 2. Essay Questions
3. The Design Argument from the Best Explanation
Richard Swinburne: The Best Explanation of Apparent Design
Lewis Vaughn: The Failure of Supernatural Hypotheses
Michael J. Behe: Intelligent Design
Philip Kitcher: Living with Darwin
Argument 3, Essay Questions
4. The Ontological Argument
St. Anselm: Anselm's Proof
Immanuel Kant: Of the Impossibility of an Ontological Proof
William L. Rowe: The Problem with the Ontological Argument
René Descartes: On the Ontological Argument
Argument 4. Essay Questions
5. The Argument from Miracles
J. L. Mackie: Miracles and Testimony
David Hume: Of Miracles
Richard Swinburne: Miracles
Argument 5. Essay Questions
6. The Argument from Evil
William L. Rowe: The Problem of Evil and Some Varieties of Atheism
H. J. McCloskey: God and Evil
Alvin Plantinga: The Free Will Defense
John Hick: The Soul-Making Defense
Argument 6. Essay Questions
Chapter 2. Essay Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading
CHAPTER 3. KNOWLEDGE AND SKEPTICISM
Key Terms
7. Descartes' Dream and Evil Genius Arguments
René Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy (Meditation I)
Christopher Grau: Bad Dreams, Evil Demons, and the Experience Machine: Philosophy and The Matrix
Argument 7. Essay Questions
8. Descartes' Argument against Skepticism
René Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy (Meditation IV)
David Hume: Of Skepticism with Regard to the Senses
Robert Audi: Against Skepticism
Argument 8. Essay Questions
9. Berkeley's Argument against the Existence of Material Objects
George Berkeley: Principles of Human Knowledge
John Locke: An Essay concerning Human Understanding
Bertrand Russell: Berkeley's Idealism
Argument 9. Essay Questions
10. Hume's Argument against Induction
Box: David Hume
David Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
Wesley C. Salmon: The Problem of Induction
Argument 10. Essay Questions
Chapter 3. Essay Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading
CHAPTER 4. MIND AND BODY
Box: René Descartes
Key Terms
11. Descartes' Conceivability Argument for Dualism
René Descartes: Discourse on Method
Paul M. Churchland: Dualism
Buddhist Writings: There Is No Ego
Argument 11. Essay Questions
12. Nagel's Bat Argument against Mind-Body Identity
Thomas Nagel: What Is It Like to Be a Bat?
J. J. C. Smart: Sensations and Brain Processes
Argument 12. Essay Questions
13. Chalmers' Zombie Argument against Materialism
David Chalmers: The Logical Possibility of Zombies
Daniel Dennett: "Epiphenomenal" Qualia?
Argument 13. Essay Questions
14. Block's Chinese Brain Argument against Functionalism
Ned Block: Troubles with Functionalism
Jerry A. Fodor: The Mind-Body Problem
Argument 14. Essay Questions
15. Searle's Chinese Room Argument against Strong AI
John R. Searle: Is the Brain's Mind a Computer Program?
William G. Lycan: Machine Consciousness
Argument 15. Essay Questions
Chapter 4. Essay Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading
CHAPTER 5. FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM
Key Terms
16. Argument for Hard Determinism
Baron d'Holbach: Of the System of Man's Free Agency
Richard Taylor: Freedom and Determinism
Jean-Paul Sartre: Absolute Freedom
Argument 16. Essay Questions
17. Indeterminist Argument for Free Will
Box: William James
William James: The Dilemma of Determinism
Robert Kane: Free Will and Modern Science
Argument 17. Essay Questions
18. Argument against Compatibilism
W. T. Stace: The Problem of Free Will
William L. Rowe: Two Concepts of Freedom
Harry G. Frankfurt: Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person
Peter van Inwagen: The Incompatibility of Free Will and Determinism
Argument 18. Essay Questions
19. Argument against Libertarianism
Randolph Clarke: Toward a Credible Agent-Causal Account of Free Will
Galen Strawson: Libertarianism, Action, and Self-Determinism
Timothy O'Connor: Agent Causation
Argument 19. Essay Questions
Chapter 5. Essay Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading
CHAPTER 6. ETHICS
Key Terms
20. Argument for Cultural Relativism
Ruth Benedict: The Case for Moral Relativism
Russ Shafer-Landau: Ethical Relativism
Argument 20. Essay Questions
21. Argument against Ethical Egoism
Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan
Louis P. Pojman: A Critique of Ethical Egoism
Joel Feinberg: Psychological Egoism
Argument 21. Essay Questions
22. Argument against the Divine Command Theory
Plato: Euthyphro
Russ Shafer-Landau: The Divine Command Theory
Argument 22. Essay Questions
23. Argument against Utilitarianism
Box: John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism
E. F. Carritt: Criticisms of Utilitarianism
Argument 23. Essay Questions
24. Argument against Kantian Ethics
Immanuel Kant: Foundations of the Metaphysic of Morals
William K. Frankena: Kant's Theory
Virginia Held: The Ethics of Care
Argument 24. Essay Questions
Chapter 6. Essay Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading
CHAPTER 7. PHILOSOPHY AT WORK: CONTEMPORARY ETHICAL DEBATES
Abortion
Key Terms
TWO ARGUMENTS AGAINST ABORTION
25. John T. Noonan, Jr.: An Almost Absolute Value in History
26. Don Marquis: Why Abortion Is Immoral
TWO ARGUMENTS FOR ABORTION
27. Mary Anne Warren: On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion
28. Judith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of Abortion
Abortion Essay Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading
EUTHANASIA
TWO ARGUMENTS AGAINST EUTHANASIA
29. Leon R. Kass: Why Doctors Must Not Kill
30. Daniel Callahan: When Self-Determination Runs Amok
TWO ARGUMENTS FOR EUTHANASIA
31. Dan W. Brock: Voluntary Active Euthanasia
32. James Rachels: Active and Passive Euthanasia
Euthanasia Essay Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading
GLOBAL HUNGER
Key Terms
33. Hardin's Argument against Aiding the Poor
Garrett Hardin: Living on a Lifeboat
William W. Murdoch and Allan Oaten: A Critique of Lifeboat Ethics
34. Singer's Argument for Aiding the Poor
Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence, and Morality
Louis P. Pojman: World Hunger and Population
Global Hunger Essay Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading
Appendix: How to Read and Write Argumentative Essays
Glossary

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