Greatness: Reagan, Churchill, and the Making of Extraordinary Leaders

Greatness: Reagan, Churchill, and the Making of Extraordinary Leaders

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by Steven F. Hayward
     
 

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The incredible unexplored connections between two of history’s greatest leaders

Ronald Reagan and Winston Churchill were true giants of the twentieth century, but somehow historians have failed to notice the many similarities between these extraordinary leaders. Until now.

In Greatness, Steven F. Hayward—who has written acclaimedSee more details below

Overview

The incredible unexplored connections between two of history’s greatest leaders

Ronald Reagan and Winston Churchill were true giants of the twentieth century, but somehow historians have failed to notice the many similarities between these extraordinary leaders. Until now.

In Greatness, Steven F. Hayward—who has written acclaimed studies of both Reagan and Churchill—goes beneath the superficial differences to uncover the remarkable (and remarkably important) parallels between the two statesmen. In exploring these connections, Hayward shines a light on the nature of political genius and the timeless aspects of statesmanship—critical lessons in this or any age.

A swift-moving and original book, Greatness reveals:

• The striking similarities between Reagan’s and Churchill’s political philosophies: the two were of the same mind on national defense, the economy, and many other critical issues

• What made both Reagan and Churchill so effective in the public arena—including their shared gift for clearly communicating their messages to the people

• The connecting thread of the Cold War, which was bookended by Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” address of 1946 and Reagan’s “Tear Down This Wall” speech of 1987

• The odd coincidences that mark everything from their childhoods to their shifts from Left to Right to their shared sense of personal and national destiny

Ultimately, Hayward shows, the examples of Churchill and Reagan teach us what is most decisive about political leadership at the highest level—namely, character, insight, imagination, and will. Greatness also serves as a sharp rebuke to contemporary historians who dismiss notions of greatness and the power of individuals to shape history. Hayward demonstrates that the British historian Geoffrey Elton had it right when he wrote, “When I meet a historian who cannot think that there have been great men, great men moreover in politics, I feel myself in the presence of a bad historian.”


From the Hardcover edition.

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Editorial Reviews

Publishers Weekly
Ronald Reagan was just a B-list actor when Winston Churchill assumed control over Europe's fate. Even as president, Reagan remained at heart a California rancher with Midwestern roots, while Churchill was a British aristocrat groomed for the political stage from a young age. Despite these obvious differences, American Enterprise Institute fellow Hayward (The Age of Reagan; Churchill on Leadership) argues that the two icons possessed the same essential ingredients for the making of political greatness: boundless vision and imagination; a capacity for strength and optimism, even humor, in the face of crisis; an iron will; and a denunciation of evil, embodied most famously in Churchill's Iron Curtain speech and Reagan's "evil empire" and "tear down this wall" counterparts. While the two were essentially conservative figures, Hayward's analysis is not innately political but is, rather, marked by balanced insightfulness. Finally, the author argues, with an optimism worthy of his subjects, that political greatness in the 21st century--an ostensible oxymoron at times--is not only necessary but possible. This is a useful primer for students of political science, not to mention politicians, in the essential qualities of truly great leaders. (Oct. 11) Copyright 2005 Reed Business Information.
Kirkus Reviews
Accept that Ronald Reagan was a genius, and the Great Communicator suddenly finds himself in august company. In this light, American Enterprise Institute thinktanker Hayward writes, "Pondering the cases of Churchill and Reagan side by side opens a window onto critical aspects of political genius, and political greatness, at the highest level." Conveniently, he adds, intelligence and greatness are not the same thing, which helps the argument inestimably. Now, the hardhearted may wonder at the view that Reagan won the Cold War without firing a single shot (does no one remember, say, Grenada?) or the datum that both Reagan and Churchill loved "vigorous outdoor labor," which seems intended to plant the idea that, say, clearing brush in Texas is a sign of greatness. Other readers may wonder, too, whether the parallels Hayward draws between Churchill and Reagan could not be applied to just about any other president in recent memory. After all, Jimmy Carter liked working outdoors, had strong moral leanings, was an anticommunist and had a tough spouse. Just so, Reagan lacked Churchill's fondness for drink, and whereas Churchill micromanaged to the tiniest detail, Reagan delegated tasks and took naps; great or no, British voters turned Churchill out of office as soon as the bombs stopped falling, while Reagan seemed bewildered at the fuss when he was caught joking before the camera that the bombs would start falling on Moscow in five minutes. But never mind: Hayward has a fluid sense of what constitutes greatness, one that includes Ronald Reagan (and perhaps the current president, who keeps a bust of Churchill in the Oval Office) but that presumably does not embrace Bill Clinton, who, after all,failed to make many rhetorical references to Churchill in his eight years in office, which fact alone sets him apart from most other presidents. Historically minded readers will enjoy the opportunity argument. Non-Reaganites, though, will have trouble with its premises from the outset.
From the Publisher
“In times of crisis, countries need leaders of courage, conviction, and clarity with an ability to rally the nation to overcome its challenges. Churchill and Reagan were two such historic leaders. Anyone interested in the lessons of leadership will find this a compelling and important book.” —Newt Gingrich

“Brilliant. If you admired Churchill and liked Reagan, you will love this book. You will smile and nod yes to yourself again and again as the comparability of these two men is unveiled.” —Martin Anderson, editor of Reagan, In His Own Hand

“A well-researched and nicely written book with enough ‘aha’ similarities to make one think that there might be something in the character of these two landmark figures to be worth teaching future generations.” Washington Times

“A great book on greatness.” —PowerLineBlog.com

“Hayward makes a compelling case that these two men shared a vision–and some important character traits–that made them the twentieth century’s greatest statesmen. . . . An elegantly written book.” —The American Enterprise

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780307338525
Publisher:
The Crown Publishing Group
Publication date:
10/04/2005
Sold by:
Random House
Format:
NOOK Book
Pages:
192
Sales rank:
325,173
File size:
0 MB

Read an Excerpt

Greatness


By Steven F. Hayward

Random House

Steven F. Hayward
All right reserved.

ISBN: 030723715X


Chapter One

Chapter 1

What Is Greatness?

A democracy, not less than any other form of government, needs great men to lead and inspire the people. --James Bryce, The American Commonwealth

Ronald Reagan, like many American politicians of both parties, liked to quote Winston Churchill. Reagan paraphrased him by name in his first presidential utterance, his inaugural address in 1981. "To paraphrase Winston Churchill," Reagan said, "I did not take the oath I've just taken with the intention of presiding over the dissolution of the world's strongest economy." Reagan quoted or mentioned the example of Churchill more than 150 times during his presidency--more than three times as much as any other president. Beyond the direct references, one finds that Reagan discussed many political issues in the same terms, and with the same vocabulary, as Churchill.

Many fine books have been written about Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt, the contemporary world leaders and indispensable partners of the Western alliance during World War II. And the most apt Anglo-American comparison might seem to be Churchill and the other Roosevelt--Theodore Roosevelt. Both were war heroes. Both were serious and accomplished writers and historians. Churchill certainly understood the meaning of TR's "bully pulpit" and his famous injunction to be "in the arena," getting your nose bloodied. In 1940 an American newspaper saw enough of the similarities to call Churchill "the Rough Rider of Downing Street." It turns out that TR, who met the young Churchill in 1900, didn't care for the brash young Englishman. His daughter, Alice Roosevelt Longworth, later told historian Arthur Schlesinger Jr. that her father disliked Churchill because "they were so much alike."

Meanwhile the affinity between Churchill and Reagan has been overlooked. Perhaps it is because, on the surface, Reagan and Churchill seem to be quite different people. Having written books about both men, however, I came to see that the comparison is a proper one, if for no other reason than the connecting thread of the Cold War. Churchill, with his famous Iron Curtain speech of 1946, made in the presence of Harry Truman, might be said to have launched the Cold War for the West. Reagan, a former Truman Democrat, ended it. Churchill said in the Iron Curtain speech that World War II could have been prevented "without the firing of a single shot." Reagan, heeding Churchill's vivid lesson, brought the Cold War to an end "without firing a single shot," Margaret Thatcher observed. (Indeed, Reagan's partnership with Thatcher in the 1980s could be seen as the very fulfillment of the Anglo-American unity that Churchill had envisioned in the Iron Curtain speech and elsewhere.)

As I began writing the second volume of my history of Ronald Reagan and his place in American political life (the forthcoming book The Age of Reagan: Lion at the Gate, 1980-1989), I recognized that the links between Reagan and Churchill extended beyond this Cold War connection. The parallels between the two men, I realized, were extensive, deep, and important. In particular, it became clear that pondering the cases of Churchill and Reagan side by side opens a window onto critical aspects of political genius, and political greatness, at the highest level.

That is why I have written this book. Unfortunately, the mainstream of contemporary history and political science does not adequately take account of the nature and sources of political greatness. Indeed, the egalitarian temper of modern intellectual life, combined with the reductionist methodology of social science, deprecates individual greatness and seeks to reduce the course of human affairs to material and subrational forces. Examining the lives and careers of Reagan and Churchill reminds us, however, that questions of how we understand political greatness deserve our attention.

What is greatness, especially political greatness? In three thousand years we have not surpassed the understanding of Aristotle, who summed up political greatness as the ability to translate wisdom into action on behalf of the public good. To be able to do this, Aristotle argued, requires a combination of moral virtue, practical wisdom, and public-spiritedness. This is exceedingly problematic, as is evident from the difficulty Aristotle has explaining it. One must know not only what is good for oneself but also what is good for others. It is not enough merely to be wise or intelligent in the ordinary IQ-score sense; in fact, Aristotle goes to great lengths to show that practical wisdom "is at the opposite pole from intelligence." One must have moral virtue, judgment, and public spirit in a fine balance, and these traits must be equally matched to the particular circumstances of time and place. It is easy to go wrong, even with the best intentions.

Greatness is not an art or a science that can be mastered through standardized training. That is one reason why few are the people on whom we bestow the exalted title of statesman. But we can study examples of greatness, and learn to recognize it when it is in our midst.

The British historian Geoffrey Elton wrote, "When I meet a historian who cannot think that there have been great men, great men moreover in politics, I feel myself in the presence of a bad historian. And there are times when I incline to judge all historians by their opinion of Winston Churchill--whether they can see that, no matter how much better the details, often damaging, of the man and his career become known, he still remains, quite simply, a great man." Much the same thing can be said of Ronald Reagan.


Excerpted from Greatness by Steven F. Hayward Excerpted by permission.
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