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What exactly is a green city? What does it mean to say that San Francisco is greener than Houston, or that Vancouver is a green city while Beijing is not? When does urban growth lower environmental quality, and when does it produce environmental gains? These are the questions that drive this smart and engaging book.
In Green Cities, Matthew Kahn surveys the burgeoning economic literature on the environmental consequences of urban growth. He discusses the environmental Kuznets curve, which theorizes that the relationship between environmental quality and per capita income follows a bell-shaped curve. The heart of the book unpacks and expands this notion by tracing the environmental effects of economic growth, population growth, and suburban sprawl. Kahn considers how cities can deal with the environmental challenges produced by growth. His concluding chapter addresses the role of cities in promoting climate change and asks how cities in turn are likely to be affected by this trend.
Kahn considers the evidence for and against rival perspectives throughout the book. Despite being labeled as purveyors of a "dismal science," economists are often quite optimistic about the relationship between urban development and the environment. In contrast, many ecologists remain wary of the environmental consequences of free-market growth. Green Cities does not try to settle this dispute. Instead, it marshals data and arguments to convey the excitement of an ongoing debate, enabling readers to formulate well-informed opinions and priorities on this critically important issue.
1 Introduction 1
2 Measuring Urban Enviornmental Quality 8
3 The Urban Environmental Kuznets Curve 30
4 Income Growth and the Urban Environment: The Role of the Market 50
5 Income Growth and Greener Governance 67
6 Population Growth and the Urban Environment 93
7 Spatial Growth: The Environmental Cost of Sprawl in the United States 110
8 Achieving Urban and Global Sustainability 130