Green Warriors: Army Environmental Considerations for Contingency Operations from Planning Through Post-Conflict [NOOK Book]

Overview


This study assesses whether Army policy, doctrine, and guidance adequately address environmental activities in post-conflict phases of contingencies. A review of policy, doctrine, operational experience, and documentation, as well as interviews with Army personnel, indicates that environmental concerns can have significant impacts. Recommendations are made for improving the Army?s approach to environmental issues in contingency operations.
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Green Warriors: Army Environmental Considerations for Contingency Operations from Planning Through Post-Conflict

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Overview


This study assesses whether Army policy, doctrine, and guidance adequately address environmental activities in post-conflict phases of contingencies. A review of policy, doctrine, operational experience, and documentation, as well as interviews with Army personnel, indicates that environmental concerns can have significant impacts. Recommendations are made for improving the Army?s approach to environmental issues in contingency operations.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780833045867
  • Publisher: RAND Corporation
  • Publication date: 9/13/2007
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Pages: 248
  • File size: 8 MB

Meet the Author

Beth Lachman (M.S., Operations Research, Stanford University) is a science and technology policy analyst at RAND. Her expertise includes systems analysis of environmental problems, development and application of environmental indicators, environmental science and technology policy, sustainable development, natural resource and ecosystem management, development of effective public-private partnerships, mathematical modeling, and GIS analysis of environmental issues and urban systems.

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Table of Contents

Preface iii

Sponsor Guidance v

Figures xi

Tables and Boxes xiii

Summary xv

Acknowledgments xix

Acronyms xxi

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Background 1

Why Should Commanders Care About Environmental Issues in Contingency Operations? 5

Environmental Issues Can Affect Soldier Health and Safety 5

Environmental Issues Can Affect Mission Success 6

Long-Term Deployments Amplify the Importance of Environmental Issues 10

The Importance of "Doing the Right Thing" 11

The Challenge of Incorporating Environmental Considerations into Contingency Operations 12

Purpose and Methodology of This Report 13

Structure of This Report 15

Chapter 2 The Context for Environmental Considerations in Contingency Operations 17

Principal Areas of Interaction with the Environment 17

Achieving Strategic Objectives 17

Conducting Tactical Operations 18

Sustaining Forces 18

Providing Humanitarian Assistance 20

Conducting Stabilization and Reconstruction Operations 20

Domestic and International Legal Context 21

Policy Context 25

Presidential Orders and DoD Directives and Regulations 27

Joint Staff and Army Regulations and Guidance 34

The Army Strategy for the Environment 50

Summary of the Policy Context 53

Operational Context 53

Duration of the Operation 54

Objectives and Nature of the Operation 54

Involvement of Other Stakeholders 57

The Environmental Context 59

Severe Degradation of the Local Environment 59

The Importance of Environmental Conditions to the Local Populace 62

Environmental Issues in Contingency Operations Significantly Different from Issues in the United States 66

Chapter 3 Experience with Environmental Considerations in ContingencyOperations 67

Planning and Guidance in the Field 67

Environmental Considerations in Operation Planning: Annex L 68

Regional Guidance 70

Army Activities in the Field 71

Base Camps 72

Stability and Reconstruction 75

Movement of Forces and Materiel 75

Different Field Activities Have Different Environmental Considerations 76

Training for Field Operations 76

Environmental Issues in Operational Experience: Case Studies 77

Case Studies of Contingency-Operation Activities with Environmental Concerns 78

Impact Analysis 81

Chapter 4 Analysis of Army Operational Experience 95

Environmental Considerations Have a Broad Range of Far-Reaching Impacts 96

Impacts Across Many Dimensions 96

Impacts Across Many Organizations Inside and Outside the Army 98

Impacts in May Geographic Areas 99

The Army Is Involved in Many Diverse Reconstruction Activities with Environmental Components 101

Insufficient Resources Are Available to Fully Address Environmental Issues 102

Contractors Must Be Carefully Selected and Managed 106

Collaboration with Stakeholders Is Beneficial and Critical 109

Proactive Environmental Practices and Lessons Are Not Being Transferred to Other Parts of the Army 112

Country-Specific Conditions and Needs Should Be Considered 114

Short- and Long-Term Considerations Need to Be Balanced 116

Environmental Problems May Contribute to Insurgency Problems 119

Chapter 5 Findings and Recommendations 121

Findings 121

1 Environmental Issues Can Have a Significant Impact on Operations 122

2 Environmental Considerations Can Be Particularly Important for Success in the Post-Conflict Phase 123

3 Environmental Considerations in Contingency Operations Are Significantly Different from Those in Normal Operations in the United States 124

4 Environmental Issues Can Have Far-Reaching Impacts Across Operations, Army Organizations, and the World 125

5 Inadequate Environmental Practices in Contingency Operations Can Increase Risks and Costs 126

6 The Army Could Improve Its Understanding of Environmental Considerations and Better Incorporate Them into Plans and Operations 126

7 The Army Has No Comprehensive Approach to Environmental Considerations in Contingencies, Especially in the Post-Conflict Phase 128

Recommendations 130

1 Improve the Policy and Guidance for Environmental Considerations in Contingency Operations 131

2 Encourage an Environmental Ethic Throughout the Army That Extends to Contingency Operations 133

3 Better Incorporate Environmental Considerations into Planning 133

4 Improve Pre-Deployment and Field Environmental Training 137

5 Invest More in Environmental Resources and Good Environmental Practices for Field Operations 140

6 Use a "Sustainability" Model for Contingency Operations 144

Conclusion 144

Appendix

A Domestic and International Law in Army Contingency Operations 147

B The Importance of Environmental Conditions to the Local Populace in Iraq 173

C Case Studies of Operational Experiences 191

Glossary of Selected Environmental Terms 215

Bibliography 219

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