Greening the Americas: NAFTA's Lessons for Hemispheric Trade

Overview

The interaction of international trade and the environment has been a topic of debate since the early 1990s. Many environmentalists complain that trade liberalization can run roughshod over efforts to control pollution and manage natural resources; advocates of free trade see green groups as protectionist. Arguing that attention to environmental issues is vital for realizing the potential economic benefits of international trade, this book offers an environmental agenda for the proposed Free Trade Area of the ...
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Overview

The interaction of international trade and the environment has been a topic of debate since the early 1990s. Many environmentalists complain that trade liberalization can run roughshod over efforts to control pollution and manage natural resources; advocates of free trade see green groups as protectionist. Arguing that attention to environmental issues is vital for realizing the potential economic benefits of international trade, this book offers an environmental agenda for the proposed Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) that aims to ensure that economic integration in the Western Hemisphere proceeds in an environmentally sustainable and politically sensible manner.

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) attempted to address environmental concerns both in its text and through a "parallel agreement," the North American Agreement for Environmental Cooperation. Greening the Americas reviews the history of NAFTA's environmental negotiations and explores the treaty's economic and environmental impact, drawing lessons that can be applied to the ongoing FTAA negotiations. It critiques the environmental elements of the NAFTA model and examines their relevance to Latin America, highlighting those elements that should be included in future agreements and those that should be dropped. In particular, it explores Latin American countries' resistance to the linkage of trade and the environment and their resentment of the perceived heavy-handedness of the United States in NAFTA environmental negotiations.

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What People Are Saying

From the Publisher
"This book digs in to the difficult issue of how to address environmental issues in the context of trade liberalization. The book's authors seek to understand the lessons from the NAFTA and to apply them to hemisphere-wide efforts to promote freer trade." Jaime Serra Puche , former Mexican Trade Minister and Chief NAFTA negotiator

"In a landscape of policy debate marked by polarized views, bitter protests, and a paucity of empirical data and analysis, this volume demystifies the linkages between trade and environment. Through clear analysis of the real life experience of North America with NAFTA, the book offers important practical lessons for hemispheric trade and environment issues that will help policy makers go beyond the rhetoric and into concrete action for a prosperous and environmentally secure Free Trade Area of the Americas."—Janine Ferretti, Executive Director, North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation

"A frank and thoughtful discussion that identifies practical ways to move the trade and environment issue forward. A must-read for policymakers, scholars and activists searching for ways to integrate trade and environment policy making in the Americas."—Christiana Figueres, Executive Director, Center for Sustainable Development in the Americas

"With perspectives from government officials, trade policy makers,academics, and NGOs, Greening the Americas brings to the trade and environment debate the lessons of the negotiations, agreements, and environmental consequences of NAFTA. The analysis and the options laid out for the current Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) negotiations should be read and taken into account by all interested parties."—Alejandro Jara, Ambassador of Chile to the WTO, Former Chairperson, WTO Committee on Trade & Environment, and Chairperson, negotiating group for Trade in Services

"Greening the Americas digs into the difficult issue of how to address environmental issues in the context of trade liberalization. The book's authors seek to understand the lessons from NAFTA and to apply them to hemisphere-wide efforts to promote freer trade."—Jaime Serra Puche, SAI Consultants, Former Mexican Trade Minister

"Deere and Esty and their contributors analyze the tensions that animate the trade and environment debate and explain why competing claims and objections arise. Greening the Americas charts a realistic course for designing new trade agreements that draw upon the strengths and avoid the mistakes of NAFTA. For those of us who see the trade and environment nexus as central to future progress this is essential reading."—William K. Reilly, Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1989-93

"This book has it all: a thorough assessment of the NAFTA trade and environment experience, a broad range of perspectives from key experts and practitioners, and a comprehensive menu of well-thought-out specific proposals to break the political deadlock. A landmark study, this collection will serve as a reference point for everyone in the field."—Jose Manuel Salazar-Xirinachs,Director, Trade Unit, OAS, Former Trade Minister, Costa Rica

"Fiorino's book provides a cogent explanation of how environmental policy got where it is, our successes and our failures. It offers critical insight into the task of crafting a new array of policy tools to tackle the formidable environmental challenges we face today."—William K. Reilly, Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1989-93

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780262042123
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • Publication date: 9/9/2002
  • Pages: 398
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Carolyn L. Deere is Assistant Director of the Global Inclusion Theme of the Rockefeller Foundation.

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Table of Contents

Foreword
Preface
1 Trade and the Environment in the Americas: Overview of Key Issues 1
I Lessons from the NAFTA Environmental Negotiations
2 A Mexican View on Trade and Environment 31
3 No Room for the Environment: The NAFTA Negotiations and the Mexican Perspective on Trade and the Environment 41
4 Mexico's NAFTA Trauma: Myth and Reality 61
5 Did Mexico Suffer Economically from the NAFTA's Environmental Provisions? 79
6 Negotiating the NAFTA: Political Lessons for the FTAA 97
II Environmental Performance of the NAFTA
7 Industrial Pollution in Mexico: Did the NAFTA Matter? 119
8 Zea Mays: Effects of Trade Liberalization of Mexico's Corn Sector 143
9 An Investment Regime for the Americas: Challenges and Opportunities for Environmental Sustainability 163
III The NAFTA's Environmental Provisions
10 Trade and Environment in the FTAA: Learning from the NAFTA 183
11 The North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation: Rowing Upstream 201
12 Limits to Cooperation: A Mexican Perspective on the NAFTA's Environmental Side Agreement and Institutions 221
IV Linking Trade and Environment in the Americas
13 The Environmental Characteristics of South American Exports 247
14 Trade and the Environment in the FTAA: A Chilean Perspective 259
15 A Latin American Agenda for a Trade and Environment Link in the FTAA 273
16 Civil Society and the Environment: An Environmentalist's Agenda for Sustainable Trade and Investment in the Americas 291
17 Sustainability and Hemispheric Integration: A Review of Existing Approaches 307
18 Trade and Environment: Reflections on the NAFTA and Recommendations for the Americas 329
App. A Environmental Provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement 355
App. B An Overview of the FTAA Process 363
App. C: Official Web Resources 367
List of Contributors 369
Index 373
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