Gronlund's Writing Instructional Objectives / Edition 8

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A unique and classic text, Gronlund’s essential “how to” text again provides a step-by-step guide to writing instructional objectives as intended learning outcomes. The author describes how to state objectives in terms of the type of performance students must demonstrate in order to show that they have achieved the goals of the instruction–and illustrates his recommended methods with numerous examples. Gronlund’s is a specific procedure for writing objectives–one that can be used to achieve all types of learning outcomes and is especially suited to teaching thinking, performance, and problem-solving skills. The book stresses the important role of objectives in the teaching-learning-assessment process–starting from state content standards–and how objectives can be used to improve student learning. The improvements made to this revision only enhance its usefulness and reputation as the best guide on the market for writing instructional objectives and using them in teaching and assessment.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131755932
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 1/30/2008
  • Series: Pearson Custom Education Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 8
  • Pages: 176
  • Sales rank: 463,892
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Focusing on Intended Learning Outcomes

Instructional Objectives as Intended Learning Outcomes

Levels of Goals and Objectives

Uses of Instructional Objectives

Learning Outcomes and the Instructional Process

Stating Instructional Objectives as Intended Learning Outcomes

What About Standards?

Chapter 2 Obtaining Clear Statements of Instructional Objectives

Stating the General Instructional Objectives

Selecting the Proper Level of Generality

Stating the Specific Learning Outcomes

Obtaining a Representative Sample of Specific Learning Outcomes

Emphasizing Instructional Intent

Keeping the Specific Learning Outcomes Useful for Various Units of Study

Using Specific Learning Outcomes in Lesson Planning

Making Sure the Specific Learning Outcomes are Relevant

Revising the General Objectives as Needed

Chapter 3 Using Objectives in Planning for Teaching and Assessment

Planning for Instruction

Planning for Assessment

Chapter 4 Content Standards and Instructional Objectives

Nature of Content Standards

Need for Instructional Objectives

Chapter 5 Considerations in Preparing Instructional Objectives

Using a Frame of References as a Guide

Other Guides in Preparing Instructional Objectives

Considerations in Selecting Instructional Objectives

Preparing Instructional Objectives Cooperatively


Chapter 6 Writing Objectives for Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application Outcomes

Stating Objectives at the Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application Levels

Adapting Statements to Areas of Instruction

Adapting Statements to Levels of Instruction

The Problem of Limiting Objectivesd to Intellectual Outcomes

Chapter 7 Writing Objectives for Higher-Level Thinking Skills

Making a Useful List of Outcomes

Adapting Statements to Areas of Instruction

Adapting Statements to Levels of Instruction

Affective Components of Thinking

Chapter 8 Writing Objectives for Affective Outcomes

Basing Statements on the Taxonomy Categories

Basing Statements on Traditional Categories

Adapting Statements to Areas and Levels of Instruction

Deciding If Affective Outcomes Should be Stated Separately

Chapter 9 Writing Performance Objectives for Skills and Products

Writing Objectives for Procedure Outcomes

Writing Objectives for Product Outcomes

Focusing on Both Procedure and Product Outcomes

Isolating Performance Skills When Writing Objectives

Guidelines for Writing and Using Peformance Objectives for Skills and Products

Chapter 10 Writing Performance Objectives for Problem-Solving Projects

Stating Objectives for Restricted Problem-Solving Projects

Stating Objectives for Extended Problem-Solving Projects

Guidelines for Writing and Using Performance Objectives in Problem-Solving Projects


Chapter 11 Using Objectives in Achievement Testing

Preparing the List of Instructional Objectives

Outlining the Content

Preparing the Table of Specifications

Constructing Relevant Test Items

Using a Simple Table for Item Writing

Using Detailed Specifications for Item Writing

Using Objectives for Interpreting Test Results

Chapter 12 Using Objectives in Performance and Affective Assessment

Assessing Performance Skills

Assessing Affective Outcomes

Using Student Portfolios

Guidelines for Preparing and Using Assessment Instruments

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