Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66 and GMFM-88) User's Manual / Edition 1by Dianne J. Russell, Peter L. Rosenbaum, Lisa M. Avery, Mary Lane
Pub. Date: 02/16/2007
The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is the first evaluative measure of motor function designed for quantifying change in the gross motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy. The new version (GMFM-66) of this widely used and now standard outcome assessment tool is completely revised, largely new, and has been improved through Rasch analysis. GMFM-66 transforms the standard GMFM into an interval measure; provides an 'item map' of the relative difficulty among items; and includes a user-friendly, computer-assisted software program to aid in scoring and interpretation of GMFM data. This is included, with a printed scoresheet, on a CD-ROM enclosed in the book.
Table of ContentsAcknowledgements; Preface; 1. Brief overview of the GMFM: what is the GMFM?; How is the GMFM administered?; Who is the GMFM appropriate for?; How is the GMFM scored?; How long does it take?; Where should it be administered?; What equipment is needed?; What qualifications are required to administer and score the GMFM? 2. Conceptual background: cerebral palsy; Measuring gross motor function: General issues in measurement; Purposes of measures; Characteristics of an evaluative measure; Norm-referenced vs. criterion-referenced tests; Level of measurement: ordinal vs. interval data; Rasch analysis: modifying an ordinal measure to give interval scores; Validation of an evaluative measure; Content validity; Criterion validity; Construct validity; Responsiveness; Reliability; Summary; 3. Development and validity of the GMFM-88: Test construction; Item selection; Item scoring; Validity of the GMFM-88; Content validity; Pre-testing of therapists; The validation study; Validation study sample; Subject sample; Therapist sample; Face validity; Validation of responsiveness; Clinical characteristics of stable and responsive groups; Determining a clinically important change; Reliability; Intra-rater and Inter-rater reliability; Reliability of change; Summary; Training users on the GMFM; How can I assess reliability in the absence of criterion testing?; Who should use the GMFM? 4. Development and validation of the GMFM-66: Rationale for applying Rasch analysis to the GMFM-88; Background to Rasch analysis and item response theory; Determining item difficulty and child ability; Goodness of fit statistics; Available Rasch models; Assumptions of the Rasch model; Unidimensionality; Sample-free and test-free measurement; Application of Rasch analysis to the GMFM; Study sample; Method; Method of scoring; Reliability of the GMFM-66; Reliability of the item calibrations and child ability scores of the GMFM-66; Reliability of item difficulties estimated with different samples (sample-free measurement); Reliability of item difficulties over time (stability); Reliability of child ability scores using different items (Test-free measurement); Validity of the GMFM-66; Construct validity and responsiveness; Responsiveness study sample; Responsiveness analysis; Summary; 5. Administration and scoring guidelines for GMFM-88 and GMFM-66: Overview; Examiner qualifications; Time required; General administration guidelines; Equipment; Environment; Clothing; Testing; Factors that may interfere with the validity of the scores; Specific scoring administration guidelines for children with Cerebral palsy; Scoring single items; Prior to completing a total score; Determining a total score for the GMFM-88; Determining a goal total score(when using the GMFM-88); Determining a total score for the GMFM-66 (for children with cerebral palsy only); Determining summary scores when testing with AIDS/Orthoses; Guidelines for testing with AIDS/Orthoses; Testing with AIDS; Testing with Orthoses; Scoring with AIDS/Orthoses; Determining summary scores when testing with AIDS/Orthoses; Administering and scoring the GMFM-88 with children with Down Syndrome; Examiner qualifications; Time required; General administration guidelines for children with Down Syndrome; Equipment; Environment; Clothing; Testing; Specific scoring administration Guidelines for children with Down Syndrom; Scoring single items; Scoring items automatically; Reported scores; Determining a total score and goal total score; Determining a total reported score; GMFM-88 and GMFM-66 Item scoring guidelines; Lying and rolling; Sitting; Crawling and kneeling; Standing; Walking, Running and jumping; Explanation of terms; 6. Interpretation and uses of the GMFM-88 and GMFM-66: Case scenario of Susie; How to decide whether to use the GMFM-88 Or the GMFM-66?; Interpreting scores from the GMFM-88; Interpreting scores from the
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