Ground Water Contamination: Transport and Remediation / Edition 2

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Overview

1384K-0

State-of-the-art theory and practice of groundwater contamination, mitigation, and remediation

Ground Water Contamination, Second Edition is a thorough update to the leading book on groundwater contamination and remediation for scientists and engineers. Written from both a theoretical and practical viewpoint, this edition focuses on the critical new challenges facing professionals seeking to prevent, mitigate, or remediate groundwater problems -- especially today's highly-complex transport problems.

Detailed new coverage includes a full chapter on sorption, biodegradation, and natural attenuation processes; extensive new coverage of risk assessment; and the results of major field studies on several military and Superfund sites. The book reflects increased concern about source zone areas with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), residual oils, vapors in the unsaturated zone, gasoline spills which float on the water table, and chlorinated solvent spills which sink to the bottom of aquifers. Coverage includes:

  • Detailed coverage of analytical and numerical methods
  • Extensive case studies and field research from military and Superfund sites
  • Waste site characterization and remedial design
  • Emerging remediation methods, including surfactant and co-solvent soil flushing

The new edition includes access to programs and worksheets for Microsoft Excel via the World Wide Web, and contains an extensive set of revised homework problems and solutions for topics such as groundwater flow, well mechanics, and contamination transport. Ground Water Contamination, Second Edition is an essential resource for all hydrogeologists, civil and environmental consulting engineers, and other professionals concerned with groundwater contamination and remediation. It is ideally designed for use in the college classroom.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Intended for hydrogeologists, engineers, and college students in those or related fields, this updated edition discusses the theory and practice of ground water contamination modeling and remediation. New coverage includes a full chapter on sorption, biodegradation, and natural attenuation processes; extensive new coverage of risk assessment; and results of major field studies on several military and Superfund sites. Also describes emerging remediation methods including surfactant and co-solvent soil flushing. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130138408
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 8/18/1999
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 604
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

DR. PHILIP BEDIENT is Chair and Professor of the Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX. He is author or co-author of over 100 articles and five textbooks related to surface and groundwater hydrology and containment transport. Bedient has directed over 40 research projects, including the BIOPLUME II program for modeling aerobic biodegradation of organic components in groundwater. He also helped direct the extensive remediation studies at HIUAFD.

DR. HANADI S. RIFAI is Assistant Professor in Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Houston. She teaches courses in hydrology, fluid mechanics, engineering design, risk assessment, and geographic information systems, has co-authored two textbooks, and is principal author of the BIOPLUME II and III models.

DR. CHARLES J. NEWELL is Vice President, Environmental Engineer, Groundwater Services, Inc., and Adjunct Professor of Environmental Science and Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX. He was Principal Investigator for the $2.5 million, multiple-site natural attenuation project at the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE

The 1970s ushered in a new decade of environmental awareness in response to major air pollution and water quality problems throughout the country. One of the primary missions of the newly formed Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was to define, maintain, and protect the quality of the nation's surface waters and subsurface aquifers. The field of environmental engineering was in its infancy, but hydrologists, civil and environmental engineers, hydrogeologists and other scientists were needed to provide the necessary expertise and engineering designs for water pollution control of surface waters.

By the late 1970s, the discovery of hazardous wastes at sites such as Love Canal in New York, the Denver Arsenal in Colorado, and a number of chlorinated organics sites in California and Arizona ushered in a new era in hazardous waste site problems. In the early 1980s, a large number of major disposal sites were discovered associated with industrial and military practices. These sites had been in place for decades. As a result, literally thousands of studies of active and abandoned waste sites and spills were conducted, as required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Superfund legislation administered by EPA, all designed to protect ground water quality (Chapter 14). During this time, hydrogeologists and consulting engineers were collecting samples, characterizing geology, analyzing data, and remediating hazardous waste sites with respect to ground water contamination. More than 1500 hazardous waste sites were eventually placed on the National Priorities List and thousands of other sites still remaining to be cleaned up.

By 1985, leaking underground fuel tanks became one of the most ubiquitous of all subsurface contamination issues. In addition, chlorinated hydrocarbon sites were recognized as some of the most difficult to remediate due to the presence of newly discovered non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). But as these sites and others were being investigated and remediation systems were being designed and installed across the country, it became clear by 1989 that many of these systems were not working to cleanup aquifers to drinking water standards. By the early 1990s, EPA and the National Research Council found that the nation was wasting large sums of money on ineffective remediation systems, such as pump and treat (see Chapter 13).

Along with the maturing of environmental engineering and related ground water fields in the eighties, attention to hazardous waste problems has greatly expanded the scope and emphasis of traditional ground water investigations. Contaminant transport in the subsurface is of paramount importance and encompasses physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms which affect rates of migration, degradation, and ultimate remediation. In the nineties, many of the these complex transport mechanisms were evaluated at actual field sites or in supporting laboratory studies.

After all of the efforts spent on analyzing and remediating soluble contaminant plumes, scientists and engineers in the nineties and beyond 2000 must be prepared to deal with more complex problems. These include source zone areas with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), residual oils, and vapors in the unsaturated zone. LNAPLs, which float on the water table, and DNAPLs, which sink to the bottom of an aquifer, can leach contamination for decades to shallow ground water aquifers. Specialized remediation schemes, which might involve a variety of methods for a mixture of chemicals, must now be evaluated in complex ground water settings. The old concept of simply pumping out the contaminated ground water does not effectively work to return an aquifer to useful condition. Rather, new and emerging methods and models must be considered in order to address and possibly control complex NAPL source zones.

The second edition of our textbook has been written to better address the scientific and engineering aspects of subsurface contaminant transport and remediation in ground water. This book contains traditional emphasis on site characterization and hydrogeologic evaluation, but with an orientation to the engineering analysis and modeling of complex field problems, compared to other texts written primarily for hydrogeologists. The current text is a departure from past efforts in that it is written from both a theoretical and practical viewpoint with engineering methods and transport theory applied directly to hazardous waste site investigation. Entire chapters are included on biodegradation, soil vapor transport, contaminant transport modeling, and site remediation. A number of new case studies have been added that illustrate the various evaluation schemes and emerging remediation techniques.

This second edition is designed for hydrologists, civil, environmental, and chemical engineers, hydrogeologists, and other decision makers in the ground water field who are or will be involved in the evaluation and remediation of the nation's ground water. However, the field of ground water contamination has changed rapidly in recent years (since 1994) as new remediation techniques are being researched in laboratories and at many field sites nationwide. Any modern student of the topic must keep a watchful eye on the literature, which reports both results and breakthroughs on a monthly basis. We hope this text will provide the fundamentals for understanding and incorporating new approaches into the more traditional methods developed in site investigations of the past two decades.

The legal framework of ground water legislation under RCRA and Superfund has provided significant guidance and funding for many of the ground water studies which have been performed to date. These comprehensive legal instruments set into motion an entire industry devoted to the identification, characterization, and remediation of hazardous waste sites throughout the U.S. As a result of billions of dollars allocated for remedial investigations and studies in the past 20 years, thousands of engineers and scientists now form the core of the ground water and remediation industry. During this time, college and university programs quickly added ground water flow and transport courses to their traditional fields of civil and environmental engineering and geology. And professional groups, such as the Assn. of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers, saw their memberships grow in response to the challenge of education and technology transfer.

Our new revision was written in response to the tremendous demand in the college classroom and in the environmental industry for a modern engineering approach to ground water contamination problems of the nineties and beyond. Any practicing hydrologist or engineer today must understand mechanisms of ground water flow (Chapters 2 and 3), sources of contamination (Chapter 4), site investigations (Chapter 5), and contaminant transport (Chapters 6 and 7). In addition, biodegradation (Chapters 7 and 8), modeling approaches (Chapter 10), NAPL impacts in source areas and plumes (Chapters 11), natural attenuation (Chapter 12), and emerging remediation schemes (Chapter 13) are covered. In the second edition, Chapters 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 13 have been completely rewritten to better reflect current trends and ideas. Many new examples and case studies have been added based on emerging methods from the current literature, A new chapter on natural attenuation and risk assessment has been added, along with detailed discussions of emerging remediation methods such as surfactant and co-solvent soil flushing for sites contaminated with residual oils. The organization is described in more detail in Chapter 1.

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction to Ground Water Contamination.

The Hydrologic Cycle. Ground Water Hydrology. Ground Water Contamination and Transport. Evolution of Ground Water Information. Ground Water Remediation.

2. Ground Water Hydrology.

Introduction. Properties of Ground Water. Ground Water Movement. General Flow Equations. Dupuit Equations. Streamlines and Equipotential Lines. Unsaturated Flow and the Water Table.

3. Ground Water Flow and Well Mechanics.

Steady-State Well Hydraulics. Steady One-Dimensional Flow. Steady Radial Flow to a Well-Confined. Steady Radial Flow to a Well-Unconfined. Well in a Uniform Flow Field. Multiple-Well System. Unsteady Well Hydraulics.

4. Sources and Types of Groundwater Contamination.

Introduction. Underground Storage Tanks. Landfills. Surface Impoundments. Waste Disposal Injection Wells. Septic Systems. Agricultural Wastes. Land Application and Mining. Radioactive Contaminants. Military Sources of Contamination. Classification of Organic Compounds. Inorganic Compounds in Groundwater. A Typical Industrial Waste Site.

5. Hydrogeologic Site Investigations.

By Robert S Lee and John A Connor. Introduction. Development of Conceptual Site Model. Strategy for Hydrogeologic Site Investigations. Development of a Detailed Site Investigation Workplan. Data Collection Methods. Geologic Data Acquisition. Hydrologic Data Acquisition. Acquisition of Soil and Groundwater Quality Data. Data Evaluation Procedures.

6. Contaminant Transport Mechanisms.

Introduction. Advection Process. Diffusion and Dispersion Processes. Mass Transport Equations. One-Dimensional Models. Governing Flow and Transport Equations. Analytical Methods. Multidimensional Methods. Tests for Dispersivity. Natural Gradient Field Tests for Dispersion.

7. Contaminant Fate Processes.

By Joseph B Hughes. Introduction. Sorption and Desorption. Abiotic Fate Processes. Volatilization. Biodegradation. Evaluation of Fate Processes.

8. Modeling Biodegradation and Natural Attenuation.

Kinetics and Rates of Biodegradation. Modeling Biodegradation. Biodegradation Models. Analytical Natural Attenuation Models. Numerical Natural Attenuation Models. Field Site Applications.

9. Flow and Transport of the Unsaturated Zone.

By Manar El-Beshry. Capillary Action. Soil-Water Characteristic Curves. Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity. Governing Equation for Unsaturated Flow. Measurement of Soil Properties. Infiltration Models. Transport Processes in the Unsaturated Zone. Governing Equations for Vapor Transport. Vadose Zone Flow and Transport Models.

10. Numerical Modeling of Contaminant Transport.

Introduction. Numerical Methods. Finite Difference Methods. Finite Element Methods. Method of Characteristics (MOC). Numerical Flow Models. Contaminant Transport Models. Modeling With Graphical Pre-Processors. Applying Numerical Models to Field Sites.

11. Nonaqueous Phase Liquids.

Introduction. Types of NAPLs. NAPL Transport - General Processes. NAPL Transport - Computational Methods. Fate of NAPLs in the Subsurface. Characterizing NAPLs at Remediation Sites.

12. Natural Attenuation and Risk Based Corrective Action.

Introduction. General Principles Behind Natural Attenuation. Natural Attenuation Protocols and Guidance. Demonstrating Natural Attenuation. Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA).

13. Ground Water Remediation Alternatives.

Introduction to Remediation Methods. Remedial Alternatives. Containment Methods for Source Control. Hydraulic Controls and Pump and Treat Systems. Bioremediation. Soil Vapor Extraction Systems. Remediating NAPL Sites. Emerging Remediation Technologies. Case Studies of Remediation.

14. Legal Protection of Ground Water.

By James B Blackburn. The Process of Ground Water Protection. The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment of 1984 (HSWA). CERCLA. Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA).

Homework.

Index.

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Preface

PREFACE

The 1970s ushered in a new decade of environmental awareness in response to major air pollution and water quality problems throughout the country. One of the primary missions of the newly formed Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was to define, maintain, and protect the quality of the nation's surface waters and subsurface aquifers. The field of environmental engineering was in its infancy, but hydrologists, civil and environmental engineers, hydrogeologists and other scientists were needed to provide the necessary expertise and engineering designs for water pollution control of surface waters.

By the late 1970s, the discovery of hazardous wastes at sites such as Love Canal in New York, the Denver Arsenal in Colorado, and a number of chlorinated organics sites in California and Arizona ushered in a new era in hazardous waste site problems. In the early 1980s, a large number of major disposal sites were discovered associated with industrial and military practices. These sites had been in place for decades. As a result, literally thousands of studies of active and abandoned waste sites and spills were conducted, as required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Superfund legislation administered by EPA, all designed to protect ground water quality (Chapter 14). During this time, hydrogeologists and consulting engineers were collecting samples, characterizing geology, analyzing data, and remediating hazardous waste sites with respect to ground water contamination. More than 1500 hazardous waste sites were eventually placed on the National Priorities List and thousands of other sites still remaining to be cleaned up.

By 1985, leaking underground fuel tanks became one of the most ubiquitous of all subsurface contamination issues. In addition, chlorinated hydrocarbon sites were recognized as some of the most difficult to remediate due to the presence of newly discovered non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). But as these sites and others were being investigated and remediation systems were being designed and installed across the country, it became clear by 1989 that many of these systems were not working to cleanup aquifers to drinking water standards. By the early 1990s, EPA and the National Research Council found that the nation was wasting large sums of money on ineffective remediation systems, such as pump and treat (see Chapter 13).

Along with the maturing of environmental engineering and related ground water fields in the eighties, attention to hazardous waste problems has greatly expanded the scope and emphasis of traditional ground water investigations. Contaminant transport in the subsurface is of paramount importance and encompasses physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms which affect rates of migration, degradation, and ultimate remediation. In the nineties, many of the these complex transport mechanisms were evaluated at actual field sites or in supporting laboratory studies.

After all of the efforts spent on analyzing and remediating soluble contaminant plumes, scientists and engineers in the nineties and beyond 2000 must be prepared to deal with more complex problems. These include source zone areas with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), residual oils, and vapors in the unsaturated zone. LNAPLs, which float on the water table, and DNAPLs, which sink to the bottom of an aquifer, can leach contamination for decades to shallow ground water aquifers. Specialized remediation schemes, which might involve a variety of methods for a mixture of chemicals, must now be evaluated in complex ground water settings. The old concept of simply pumping out the contaminated ground water does not effectively work to return an aquifer to useful condition. Rather, new and emerging methods and models must be considered in order to address and possibly control complex NAPL source zones.

The second edition of our textbook has been written to better address the scientific and engineering aspects of subsurface contaminant transport and remediation in ground water. This book contains traditional emphasis on site characterization and hydrogeologic evaluation, but with an orientation to the engineering analysis and modeling of complex field problems, compared to other texts written primarily for hydrogeologists. The current text is a departure from past efforts in that it is written from both a theoretical and practical viewpoint with engineering methods and transport theory applied directly to hazardous waste site investigation. Entire chapters are included on biodegradation, soil vapor transport, contaminant transport modeling, and site remediation. A number of new case studies have been added that illustrate the various evaluation schemes and emerging remediation techniques.

This second edition is designed for hydrologists, civil, environmental, and chemical engineers, hydrogeologists, and other decision makers in the ground water field who are or will be involved in the evaluation and remediation of the nation's ground water. However, the field of ground water contamination has changed rapidly in recent years (since 1994) as new remediation techniques are being researched in laboratories and at many field sites nationwide. Any modern student of the topic must keep a watchful eye on the literature, which reports both results and breakthroughs on a monthly basis. We hope this text will provide the fundamentals for understanding and incorporating new approaches into the more traditional methods developed in site investigations of the past two decades.

The legal framework of ground water legislation under RCRA and Superfund has provided significant guidance and funding for many of the ground water studies which have been performed to date. These comprehensive legal instruments set into motion an entire industry devoted to the identification, characterization, and remediation of hazardous waste sites throughout the U.S. As a result of billions of dollars allocated for remedial investigations and studies in the past 20 years, thousands of engineers and scientists now form the core of the ground water and remediation industry. During this time, college and university programs quickly added ground water flow and transport courses to their traditional fields of civil and environmental engineering and geology. And professional groups, such as the Assn. of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers, saw their memberships grow in response to the challenge of education and technology transfer.

Our new revision was written in response to the tremendous demand in the college classroom and in the environmental industry for a modern engineering approach to ground water contamination problems of the nineties and beyond. Any practicing hydrologist or engineer today must understand mechanisms of ground water flow (Chapters 2 and 3), sources of contamination (Chapter 4), site investigations (Chapter 5), and contaminant transport (Chapters 6 and 7). In addition, biodegradation (Chapters 7 and 8), modeling approaches (Chapter 10), NAPL impacts in source areas and plumes (Chapters 11), natural attenuation (Chapter 12), and emerging remediation schemes (Chapter 13) are covered. In the second edition, Chapters 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 13 have been completely rewritten to better reflect current trends and ideas. Many new examples and case studies have been added based on emerging methods from the current literature, A new chapter on natural attenuation and risk assessment has been added, along with detailed discussions of emerging remediation methods such as surfactant and co-solvent soil flushing for sites contaminated with residual oils. The organization is described in more detail in Chapter 1.

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