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Grover Cleveland (American Presidents Series)
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Grover Cleveland (American Presidents Series)

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by Henry F. Graff, Arthur M. Schlesinger (Editor)
 

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A fresh look at the only president to serve nonconsecutive terms.

Though often overlooked, Grover Cleveland was a significant figure in American presidential history. Having run for President three times and gaining the popular vote majority each time -- despite losing the electoral college in 1892 -- Cleveland was unique in the line of nineteenth-century

Overview

A fresh look at the only president to serve nonconsecutive terms.

Though often overlooked, Grover Cleveland was a significant figure in American presidential history. Having run for President three times and gaining the popular vote majority each time -- despite losing the electoral college in 1892 -- Cleveland was unique in the line of nineteenth-century Chief Executives.

In this book, presidential historian Henry F. Graff revives Cleveland's fame, explaining how he fought to restore stature to the office in the wake of several weak administrations. Within these pages are the elements of a rags-to-riches story as well as an account of the political world that created American leaders before the advent of modern media.

Editorial Reviews

Publishers Weekly
In this brief, excellent volume written for Arthur Schlesinger's American Presidents series, Columbia professor emeritus Graff (The Tuesday Cabinet) picks up the often neglected Grover Cleveland, dusts him off and reminds us how substantial he was. After serving as mayor of Buffalo and governor of New York, Cleveland (1837-1908) was the first Democrat to be elected president after the Civil War. He forced America's railroad titans to return 81,000,000 western acres previously granted by the federal government and regulated them with the Interstate Commerce Act. Although defeated in the electoral college by Benjamin Harrison in 1888, Cleveland won the popular vote, which set the stage for his return to the presidency in 1892 in the midst of nationwide depression. As usual, Cleveland acted decisively. He repealed the inflationary Sherman Silver Purchase Act and, with the aid of Wall Street, maintained the Treasury's gold reserve. When Chicago railroad strikers violated an injunction against further disruption, Cleveland dispatched federal troops. Cleveland's no-nonsense treatment of the strikers stirred many Americans, as did the way he forced Great Britain to accept arbitration of a disputed boundary in Venezuela. But many of Cleveland's hard-hitting policies during the depression proved unpopular in the long term; in 1896, his party nominated William Jennings Bryan for the presidency. In clean, matter-of-fact prose, Graff sums up the plainspoken Cleveland as a man of action and uncompromising integrity a man who, though publicly identified as the father of a bastard child, nevertheless restored dignity to the office of the president in the wake of several weak administrations. (Aug. 20) Forecast: Because Cleveland lacks the popular appeal of Teddy Roosevelt or James Madison (with bios already published in this series), this fine volume may be more for completists. Copyright 2002 Cahners Business Information.
Library Journal
As part of the "American Presidents" series under the editorial direction of Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., distinguished historian Graff (America: The Glorious Republic, to 1877) offers new insight into a President who is often overlooked. Best known as the only President to serve two nonconsecutive terms, Cleveland does indeed deserve Graff's fresh examination. The 1888 Presidential election was marked by one of the earliest and most virulent attacks on the personal behavior of a candidate when Cleveland was accused of fathering a child out of wedlock. But the candidate took full responsibility for the child (an act Graff refers to as "the gold standard" for such circumstances), and in the end the incident did not cause Cleveland to lose the election. Graff's examination of the 1888 election is one of the finest short reviews of that peculiar race available. Cleveland had a narrow view of the President's powers and did not exert the more expansive leadership that would characterize later Presidents. But he was an able administrator and pursued a clean-government agenda. This slim volume is a valuable addition to the literature on the Presidency and is a compelling argument for taking Cleveland seriously as a President. For political collections of public libraries.-Michael A. Genovese, Loyola Marymount Univ., Los Angeles Copyright 2002 Cahners Business Information.
Kirkus Reviews
Slender but deftly sketched assessment of our 22nd and 24th president. Physically imposing in life, Grover Cleveland is largely forgotten now, except for the oddity that he was the only president to have served two nonconsecutive terms in office (1885-89 and 1893-97). He deserves better from historians, argues Graff (Professor Emeritus, History/Columbia Univ.), who points out Cleveland's political domination of his time: a politician of integrity, sincerity, and decency at a time of widespread political corruption. As such, Cleveland won the popular vote for president three times in a row-he lost the electoral vote to Benjamin Harrison in 1888-and was revered by millions of his contemporaries. Compelled to forego college after the early death of his father, the young Cleveland settled down to read law in Buffalo. Cleveland quickly rose to prominence as a Buffalo attorney, and his close relationship with influential New York Democratic kingmaker Daniel Manning resulted in short, successful stints as mayor of Buffalo and governor of New York. In these early jobs, he established the themes of sound administration, resistance to pork-barrel politics, and general fairness that distinguished him later as president. In that office, he saw civil-service reform of government and articulated a foreign policy of fair play-he disapproved of the coup that overthrew the Hawaiian monarchy, for instance-that contrasted with the imperialism of successor Teddy Roosevelt. In Graff's study, striking differences between Cleveland's era and ours emerge: pretending disinterest while subordinates ran the campaign, Cleveland and his opponents passively "stood" for office instead of running for it. In addition,Cleveland was a "gray personality" whose coarse appearance, heavy body, and unspectacular memorized speeches might have disqualified him for the presidency in the age of television. Graff does not see Cleveland as a visionary figure, but as a transition between the 19th century's ideal of a limited presidency and our more expansive modern view of the office. An absorbing study of an undeservedly forgotten president.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780805069235
Publisher:
Holt, Henry & Company, Inc.
Publication date:
08/20/2002
Series:
American Presidents Series
Pages:
176
Sales rank:
177,967
Product dimensions:
5.75(w) x 8.49(h) x 0.70(d)
Age Range:
14 - 18 Years

Read an Excerpt

Grover Cleveland


By Henry F. Graff

Times Books

Copyright © 2003 Henry F. Graff
All right reserved.

ISBN: 0-805-06923-2


Chapter One

Early Years

Cleveland was baptized Stephen Grover, but he never used the Stephen after he grew up. He was the fifth of the nine children and third son of the Reverend Richard Falley Cleveland and Ann Neal, a native of Baltimore. There her father, Abner Neal, made a living as a bookseller and publisher of law books. He and his family had emigrated recently from Ireland, possibly fleeing the consequences of involvement in the 1798 uprising against the British crown. Ann's mother, Barbara Reel, was a Quaker of German background from Germantown, Pennsylvania. The new baby, then, like his siblings, would be regarded as a "typical" American - an amalgam of English, Irish, and German stock.

The father of the future president was a Yale graduate, class of 1824, ordained into the Presbyterian ministry at the Princeton Theological Seminary in 1829. Having fallen in love with Ann Neal while he was a tutor in Baltimore, he and she were married the same year. The fledgling minister's maiden pastorate was the First Congregational Church of Windham, Connecticut. To the dismay of her husband's new flock, his bride arrived on the scene accompanied by a black maid, and garbed in a flashy dress, her wrists jangling with bracelets. Quickly, though, she sent the maid back to Baltimore, tookoff the jewelry, and began comporting herself in less dazzling fashion as a devoted helpmate to her husband.

Richard Cleveland worked so hard in his post that he fell ill. Friends, believing that he needed a change of scene, obtained a pulpit for him in a Presbyterian church in Portsmouth, Virginia. The lively Ann was pleased that once more she could put on her jewelry and dress as she pleased. Two years later, in 1835, Reverend Richard was called to the pastorate of the Presbyterian congregation in Caldwell, New Jersey. There he came under the influence of the Reverend Steven Grover, an aging minister, long associated with the church, who was filling in in the pulpit until the Clevelands got there. When their fifth child arrived soon afterward, it seemed apt to name him for the admired elderly cleric.

The tiny village of Caldwell, where Stephen Grover Cleveland came into the world, was originally known as Horseneck. It had been renamed in 1798 in honor of James Caldwell, a minister whose exploits during the Revolution in support of Washington and his troops had earned him the sobriquet of "Fighting Parson." Located just northwest of Newark on the Passaic River, Caldwell had a population of no more than a thousand in the 1830s, having doubled in size since 1800. It enjoyed a reputation for having such salubrious air that physicians recommended to their patients locating there as a cure-all for a medley of ailments. Like many such pin-dot communities, its coterie of farm families were supplied by a general store, a sawmill, a distillery, a local cider mill, and a blacksmith's shop. But its history was unique, and an inquisitive family like the Clevelands must have gloried in what they learned of it. The very road on which the Cleveland two-story frame house stood, now known as Bloomfield Avenue, had been the scene of the well-remembered Horseneck Riots of 1745, which pitted the settlers against the proprietors of New Jersey over land titles, in what may be considered one of the earliest rebellions against the Crown.

As isolated and sleepy as small towns still were in the 1830s, a new epoch was emerging, although it was only in retrospect that people could know this was so. More than ever before, Americans - not only the Cleveland family - were on the move. After the Erie Canal was opened in New York in 1825, a canal-building frenzy gripped the country. By the time the Panic of 1837 put an end to the canal boom, it was possible to travel along internal waterways from New York to New Orleans. All in all, three thousand miles of canals crisscrossed the country, mostly in the North. Yet the horse remained ubiquitous for most transportation until well into the next century. It was the rail-road, though, its route not bound by the availability of rivers and lakes, that became the great binder of the nation, its tracks serving as giant straps connecting the sections better than ever before. Whereas there were twenty-eight hundred miles of rail in 1840, a decade later there were nine thousand. It was plain to see that the "cars," as railroads soon were called, remade every town center that they reached. Their arrival on schedule forced people to be mindful of the clock. Everything, it appeared, was being done in "railroad time" now, and life was noticeably speeding up. Henry David Thoreau, who was fascinated by the Iron Horse, "breathing fire and smoke from its nostrils," asked even as he knew the answer: "Do [people] not talk and think faster in the depot than in the stage office?" New states constantly coming into the Union added every few years to the number of stars in the flag: Arkansas in 1836, Michigan the following year, Florida and Texas in 1845, Wisconsin in 1848, and California in 1850.

It is safe to guess that the Clevelands, even in their quiet little town, felt the vibrations from these developments. But their way of living was no different from those of their eighteenth-century forebears. When Grover was four years old, his father was called as pastor to yet another church. This time the family moved to Fayetteville, New York, a snug and beautiful village in the western part of the state near Syracuse, enriched by the trade flowing on the Erie Canal. Settled in 1792, it was named for the immortal French hero of the Revolution, the Marquis de Lafayette. The handsome Greek Revival homes that still stand there testify to the prosperity of the local quarries, mills, and farms. Here Cleveland, known to his friends as Big Steve, attended the Fayetteville Academy. Full of drive and dash, the boy was serious in his studies although he participated in pranks. He received excellent training in mathematics and Latin, and he took to his work apparently with self-confidence. He began to enjoy fishing as a hobby, and it would give him pleasure throughout his life. There were few other diversions, and the day practically ended at nightfall, even though the new oil lamps were extending the hours for reading. The penny press was emerging, marked by the appearance of the Sun in New York City in 1833. A few years later Horace Greeley, a transplanted Vermonter, established the Tribune, which in its weekly form became a staple in rural homes. Nevertheless, most small towns were still not touched by the force of daily news. Indoor plumbing, ready-made furniture, and balloon-frame houses were beginning to change domestic habits in some places, but these improvements were beyond the reach of most people, including the Clevelands.

Although they would remain impecunious like most clerical households, its members surely entertained no feeling of inferiority or deprivation. Pride of ancestry always buttressed their sense of themselves. The first Cleveland, Moses, a child of eleven, who spelled the name Cleaveland, had arrived in Massachusetts around 1634 from Ipswich, Suffolk County, England, as an apprentice indentured to a joiner. He was accompanied by his brother Aaron. Prosperity soon rewarded the youths' diligence. Moses's great-grandson, also an Aaron Cleveland, was Grover's great-great-grandfather, and a friend of Benjamin Franklin. In fact, he had died in Franklin's house in Philadelphia while seeking medical treatment in the city. It was he who dropped the letter "a" from the family surname. A Harvard alumnus, he took holy orders as a Presbyterian but, having converted to Episcopalianism, was forced to travel to London in order to be consecrated by a bishop, as was the requirement-in his case, the ceremony was performed by the Bishop of London. Aaron's son, yet another Aaron, became a Congregationalist minister and, as a member of the Connecticut state legislature, introduced the first bill in American history calling for the abolition of slavery.

A forebear, a Moses Cleaveland too, after distinguished military service in the American Revolution, was a successful lawyer in Canterbury, Connecticut, and served in the state convention that ratified the Constitution in 1788. In 1795 he led a group of investors who participated in the Connecticut Land Company's purchase of three million acres of Connecticut's Western Reserve. He and a party of associates in the following year established a settlement on the south shore of Lake Erie at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River. Named Cleaveland, in salute to Moses's efforts, the little village, which had become a thriving town by the time Grover was born, finally dropped the "a" in 1832, when, it was reported, the local newspaper had need to shorten its masthead.

Young Grover was conscious that his people were patriots whose deeds were tied to the history of the country. He knew much about the national heroes. When he was only nine years old, in writing a composition on the value of industriousness, he pointed out: "George Washington improved his time when he was a boy and he was not sorry when he was at the head of a large army fighting for his country ... Jackson was a poor boy but he was placed in school and by improving his time he found himself president of the United States guiding and directing a powerful nation."

(Continues...)



Excerpted from Grover Cleveland by Henry F. Graff Copyright © 2003 by Henry F. Graff. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Meet the Author

Henry F. Graff is a professional emeritus of history at Columbia University, where he taught his pioneering seminar on the presidency. The author of The Tuesday Cabinet and the reference work The Presidents, he is a frequent commentator on radio and television. Graff lives in New York.

Series editor, Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., (1917-2007) was the preeminent political historian of our time. For more than half a century, he was a cornerstone figure in the intellectual life of the nation and a fixture on the political scene. He won two Pulitzer prizes for The Age of Jackson (1946) and A Thousand Days (1966), and in 1988 received the National Humanities Medal. He published the first volume of his autobiography, A Life in the Twentieth Century, in 2000.

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Grover Cleveland 4.2 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 5 reviews.
sfh_from_illinois More than 1 year ago
The American Presidents Series has provided succinct and knowledgeable summaries of our presidents. Short and to the point! I've read several of them and none has disappointed me.
BrokerOne More than 1 year ago
a very interesting consise coverage of an ex-president
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Informative and well written. I have read many books in this series and this one is good.
Guest More than 1 year ago
Stating that Grover Cleveland 'is the best Unknown President,' Henry Graff points out that Cleveland is remembered 'almost exclusively as the president who had two nonconsecutive terms of office.' Arguing that 'he deserves a better fate,' Graff reveals his bias but fails to present a convincing argument. Though Cleveland was popular in his time, the policies of his administrations did not differ substantially from those of other administrations of the era. Republican and democratic administrations considered the interests of big business paramount. Graff even notes that the Cleveland supporters were Bourban Democrats, i.e. people who 'had learned nothing and forgotten nothing.' The book is, however, useful in understanding the political and economic changes taking place in the closing decades of the 19th century, including the waging of presidential campaigns. One weakness of the book is Graff's tendency to comment on issues from the perspective of late 20th century social morality. At times this comes across as criticism while other times it seems to be apologetic. Straight reporting of events and policies, leaving the judgment to readers, would have served the author's purposes better. Despite this shortcoming, the book is a worthy contribution to the presidential series.