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Growth, Maturation & Physical Activity - 2E / Edition 2

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Overview

The second edition of Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity has been expanded with almost 300 new pages of material, making it the most comprehensive text on the biological growth, maturation, physical performance, and physical activity of children and adolescents. The new edition retains all the best features of the original text, including the helpful outlines at the beginning of each chapter that allow students to review major concepts.

This edition features updates on basic content, expanded and modified chapters, and the latest research findings to meet the needs of upper undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers and professionals working with children and young adults. The second edition also includes these new features:

-10 lab activities that encourage students to investigate subject matter outside of class and save teachers time

-A complete reference list at the end of each chapter

-Chapter-ending summaries to make the review process easy for students

-New chapters that contain updates on thermoregulation, methods for the assessment of physical activity, undernutrition, obesity, children with clinical conditions, and trends in growth and performance

-Discussions that span current problems in public health, such as the quantification of physical activity and energy expenditure, persistent undernutrition in developing countries, and the obesity epidemic in developed countries
The authors are three of the world's foremost authorities on children's growth and development. In 29 chapters, they address introductory concepts and prenatal growth, postnatal growth, functional development, biological maturation, influencing factors in growth, maturation and development, and specific applications to public health and sport. In addition, secular trends in growth, maturation, and performance over the past 150 years are considered. You'll be able to recognize risk factors that may affect young athletes; you'll also be able to make informed decisions about appropriate physical activities, program delivery, and performance expectations.

Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity, Second Edition, covers many additional topics, including new techniques for the assessment of body composition, the latest advances in the study of skeletal muscle, the human genome, the hormonal regulation of growth and maturation, clarification of dietary reference intakes, and the study of risk factors for several adult diseases.

This is the only text to focus on the biological growth and maturation process of children and adolescents as it relates to physical activity and performance. With over 300 new pages of material, this text expertly builds on the successful first edition.

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Editorial Reviews

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Michael G White, MD (Ochsner Clinic Foundation)
Description: This is the second edition of a book that provides an excellent review of the issues of growth and development as they relate to the ability to train and exercise. Directed mainly at exercise physiologists or kinesiologists interested in child and teenage athletes, the book should also interest physicians or healthcare professionals who might provide primary care for this group of patients. The book provides a broad and sometimes detailed overview of anatomical, physiological and psychological development. The first edition was published in 1991.
Purpose: The purpose is to provide a course of study for exercise physiologists and kinesiologists. The book includes lab exercises and chapters on the impact that exercise has on public health.
Audience: Teachers of exercise physiology and their students are the primary audience for this book.
Features: This book provides a comprehensive look at issues of growth and development as they may relate to the ability to exercise starting with prenatal issues and continuing through adolescence. It reviews the issues carefully and presents the measures used to quantify development related to these issues. An effort is also made to discuss the elements of study design necessary to evaluate these issues.
Assessment: This is an excellent text for a course in the development of the ability to exercise. It is a timely update of the previous edition.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780880118828
  • Publisher: Human Kinetics Publishers
  • Publication date: 12/18/2003
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 728
  • Sales rank: 804,595
  • Product dimensions: 11.10 (w) x 8.60 (h) x 2.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Robert M. Malina, PhD, FACSM, earned a doctoral degree in physical education from the University of Wisconsin at Madison and a doctoral degree in anthropology from the University of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia. He earned honorary degrees from the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium and the Academy of Physical Education, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland. He was a professor of kinesiology and anthropology at the University of Texas at Austin from 1967 to 1995 and then moved to a similar position in kinesiology and anthropology at Michigan State University. Dr. Malina retired from Michigan State University in the summer of 2002. He currently is a research professor at Tarleton State University at Stephenville, Texas, and a research associate at the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Michigan State University.

Professor Malina served as editor in chief of the American Journal of Human Biology (1990-2002), editor of the Yearbook of Physical Anthropology (1980-1986), and section editor for growth and development for Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews (1981-1999) and Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (1981-1993). He also serves on the editorial boards of 13 journals in the sport sciences and biological anthropology.

His primary area of interest is the biological growth and maturation of children and adolescents with a focus on performance, youth sports and young athletes, and the potential influences of physical activity and training for sport. He has also worked extensively with the anthropometric correlates of physique and body composition in female athletes at the university level. Related areas of interest are the role of physical activity in the well being of children, adolescents, and young adults and the influence of chronic undernutrition on the growth, performance, and physical activity of Latin American youth.

Claude Bouchard, PhD, FACSM, is the executive director of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center and the George A. Bray chair in nutrition. He holds a BPed from Laval University, an MSc in exercise physiology from the University of Oregon at Eugene, and a PhD in population genetics from the University of Texas at Austin. His research deals with the genetics of adaptation to exercise and to nutritional interventions as well as the genetics of obesity and its comorbidities. He has authored or coauthored several books and more than 800 scientific papers. He received the Honor Award from the Canadian Association of Sport Sciences in 1988 and 2002, a Citation Award from the American College of Sports Medicine in 1992, the Benjamin Delessert Award in nutrition in France in 1993, the Willendorf Award from the International Association for the Study of Obesity in 1994, the Sandoz Award from the Canadian Atherosclerosis Society in 1996, the Albert Creff Award in Nutrition from the National Academy of Medicine of France in 1997, the TOPS award from the North American Association for the Study of Obesity in 1998, the W. Henry Sebrell Award from the Weight Watchers Foundation in 1999, and of an honorary doctoral degree in science from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in 1998. He has been a foreign member of the Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium since 1996 and was the Leon Mow visiting professor at the International Diabetes Institute in Melbourne in 1998. In 2001, he became a member of the Order of Canada as well as professor emeritus of the faculty of medicine at Laval University. Dr. Bouchard is a former president of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity and the president of the International Association for the Study of Obesity (2002-2006). Prior to coming to Pennington, he held the Donald B. Brown research chair on obesity at Laval University.

The late Oded Bar-Or, MD, FACSM, was a professor of pediatrics and founder and director of the Children's Exercise and Nutrition Centre at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. His 35-year research and clinical career focused on the effects of physical activity and inactivity on the health, well-being, and performance of healthy children and those with disease. During his career, he served as president of the Canadian Association of Sports Sciences, vice president of the American College of Sports Medicine, and president of the International Council for Physical Fitness Research. In 2000, the University of Blaise Pascal in France awarded him an honorary doctorate degree. He also received the Honor Award of the North American Society for Pediatric Medicine in 1998 and the Citation Award of the ACSM in 1997.

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Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments

Part I. Introduction
Chapter 1. Introductory Concepts

-Definitions and Context

-Chronological Age and Age Groups

-Why Study These Phenomena?

-Types of Studies

-Principles of Measurement and Observation

-Overview of Postnatal Growth: Scammon's Curves

-General Regulation of Growth and Maturation

-Sources of Growth, Performance, and Activity Data

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 2. Prenatal Growth and Functional Development

-Stages of Prenatal Growth

-Sex Differentiation

-Twins and Twinning

-Prenatal Loss

-Congenital Malformations

-Fetal Growth

-Fetal Motor Activity

-Factors That Affect Birth Weight

-Overview of the Prenatal Period

-Fetal Origins of Adult Diseases

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Part II. Postnatal Growth
Chapter 3. Somatic Growth

-Measurements Commonly Used in Growth Studies

-Growth in Stature and Body Weight

-Growth of the Body Mass Index

-Growth Patterns in Other Body Dimensions

-Changes in Body Proportions

-Adjusting for Variation in Body Size—Scaling

-Tracking

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 4. Development of Physique

-Concept of Somatotype

-Methods in the Assessment of Physique

-Somatotyping Children and Adolescents

-Examples of Somatotypes of Individuals During Growth

-Distributions of Somatotypes

-Change in Somatotype During Growth

-Tracking

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 5. Body Composition

-Models of Body Composition

-Methods for Estimating Body Composition

-Applications to Children and Adolescents

-Concept of Chemical Maturity

-Composition of the Fat-Free Mass in Children and Adolescents

-Changes in Body Density and Total-Body Water During Growth

-Growth in Fat-Free Mass, Fat Mass, and Percent Fat

-Tracking

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 6. Bone Tissue in Skeletal Growth and Body Composition

-Bone Cells

-Bone Formation

-Growth of a Long Bone

-Bone As a Component of Body Composition

-Tracking

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 7. Skeletal Muscle Tissue

-Muscle As a Tissue

-Myogenesis

-Muscle Fiber Types

-Muscle Fiber Size

-Contractile Properties of Muscle

-Metabolic Properties of Muscle

-Assessing Muscle Mass of the Body

-Development of Muscle Tissue by Bodily Region

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 8. Adipose Tissue

-The Fat Cell As a Complex Structure

-Stages and Mechanisms of Adipogenesis

-White and Brown Adipose Cells

-White Adipose Tissue in Prenatal Life

-White Adipose Tissue in Postnatal Life

-Subcutaneous Fat Distribution During Growth

-Abdominal Visceral Fat During Growth

-Stability of Body Fat During Growth

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Part III. Functional Development
Chapter 9. Heart, Blood, and Lungs

-Features of Fetal Circulation

-Cardiopulmonary Adjustments at Birth

-Changes in Heart Size

-Changes in Heart Functions

-Changes in Features of Blood During Growth

-Changes in Lungs and Respiratory Functions During Growth

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 10. Motor Development

-What Is Motor Development?

-Motor Pattern and Skill

-Classifications of Motor Activities

-The Newborn Infant and the Reflexes of Infancy

-Motor Development —Birth to 2 Years of Age

-Development of Independent Walking

-Development of Fundamental Motor Skills

-Early Motor Development and Growth of the Brain

-Status at Birth and Subsequent Motor Development

-Early Postnatal Growth and Motor Development

-Overview of Motor Development

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 11. Strength and Motor Performance

-Physical Fitness

-Measures of Strength and Motor Performance

-Performance in Early Childhood

-Performance in Middle Childhood and Adolescence

-Relationships of Strength and Motor Performance to Size, Physique, and Body Composition

-Scaling of Strength and Motor Performance

-Tracking

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 12. Aerobic Performance

-Measurement Issues

-Growth-Related Adaptations in Aerobic Performance

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 13. Anaerobic Performance

-Anaerobic Versus Aerobic Energy Turnover

-Determinants of Anaerobic Performance

-Measurement Issues

-Growth and the Determinants of Anaerobic Performance

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 14. Thermoregulation During Growth

-The Physics of Heat Transfer

-Physiologic Means of Thermoregulation

-Responses to Heat Associated With Growth and Maturation

-Acclimatization and Acclimation

-Responses to Cold Climates

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Part IV. Biological Maturation
Chapter 15. Biological Maturation: Concepts and Assessment

-Assessing Skeletal Maturity

-Assessing Sexual Maturity

-Assessing Somatic Maturity

-Assessing Dental Maturity

-Interrelationships Among Maturity Indicators

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 16. Timing and Sequence of Changes During Adolescence

-Adolescent Growth Spurt

-Sexual Maturity

-Sequence of Sexual and Somatic Maturity

-Growth Spurts in Other Dimensions

-Body Dimensions and Composition Relative to Peak Height Velocity

-Growth Spurts in Performance

-Performance Relative to Menarche

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 17.Maturity-Associated Variation in Growth and Performance

-Classifying Children by Maturity Status

-Maturity-Associated Variation in Body Size

-Maturity-Associated Variation in Physique

-Maturity-Associated Variation in Body Composition

-Maturity-Associated Variation in Adipose Tissue Distribution

-Maturity-Associated Variation in Strength and Motor Performance

-Maturity-Associated Variation in the Adaptation to Exercise and VO2max

-Maturity-Associated Variation in Anaerobic Performance

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Part V. Influencing Factors
Chapter 18. Genetic Regulation of Growth, Maturation, and Performance

-The Human Genome

-The Human Gene

-From Genes to Proteins to Phenotypes

-Gene Expression

-The Special Case of Mitochondrial DNA

-Genetic Variation in Human Genes

-The Multifactorial Phenotype

-Genetics of Fetal Development

-Genetic Influences on the Newborn

-Genetics of Selected Growth Phenotypes

-Genetics of Maturation

-Genetics of Selected Performance Phenotypes

-Examples of Growth-Related Genes

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 19. Hormonal Regulation of Growth and Maturation

-Endocrine, Paracrine, Autocrine, and Intracrine Systems

-Endocrine Hormones

-Other Growth-Promoting Factors and Hormones

-Hypothalamic and Pituitary Hormones

-Growth Hormone and Related Growth Factors

-Thyroid Hormones

-Parathyroid and Calcitonin Hormones

-Hormones From the Adrenal Medulla and Cortex

-Gonadal Glands and Hormones

-Insulin and Glucagon

-Leptin

-Regulation of Puberty

-Menstrual Cycle

-Overview of Hormones and Their Actions

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 20. Energy and Nutritional Requirements

-Nutrients

-Breast-Feeding and the Infant

-Energy Needs

-Energy Requirements for Growth

-Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for Energy Intake

-DRI for Protein Intake

-DRI for Lipid Intake

-Carbohydrate Requirements

-Vitamin Requirements

-Mineral Requirements

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 21. Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure: Assessment, Trends, and Tracking

-What Is Physical Activity?

-What Is Energy Expenditure?

-Methods of Assessing Patterns or Levels of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure

-Developmental Trends in Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure

-Tracking of Physical Activity Levels

-Correlates of Physical Activity Levels in Childhood and Adolescence

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 22. Physical Activity As a Factor in Growth, Maturation, and Performance

-Physical Activity

-Approaches to the Study of Physical Activity

-Activity and Stature

-Activity, Body Weight, and Body Composition

-Activity and Physique

-Activity and Specific Tissues

-Activity and Biological Maturity

-Overview of Activity, Growth, and Maturation

-Activity, Fitness, and Performance

-The Concept of Trainability

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 23. Undernutrition in Childhood and Adolescence

-Criteria

-Prevalence

-Forms of Undernutrition

-Undernutrition in Preschool Children

-Undernutrition in School-Age Children

-Long-Term Consequences of Undernutrition

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 24. Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence

-Indicators

-Criteria and Prevalence

-Correlates of Overweight and Obesity

-Consequences of Obesity for Children and Adolescents

-Long-Term Consequences of Obesity

-Treatment

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 25. Other Factors Affecting Growth, Maturation, Performance, and Activity

-Social Conditions, Growth, and Maturation

-Social Conditions, Motor Development, Performance, and Activity

-Ethnic Variation in Growth and Maturity

-Ethnic Variation in Motor Development, Performance, and Activity

-Climate, Growth, and Maturity

-Climate, Performance, and Physical Activity

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Part VI. Applications
Chapter 26. Risk Factors During Growth and Adult Health

-Primary and Secondary Prevention

-Risk Factors for Common Metabolic Diseases

-Current Risk Profile of Children and Adolescents

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 27. Chronic Clinical Conditions and Physical Disabilities

-Selected Clinical Conditions That Affect Growth and Maturation

-Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents With Chronic Conditions

-Fitness and Performance of Children and Adolescents With Chronic Conditions

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 28. The Young Athlete

-Participation in Youth Sports

-Selection and Exclusion in Sport

-Who Is the Young Athlete?

-Stature and Weight of Young Athletes

-Maturity Status and Progress of Young Athletes

-Age at Menarche in Athletes

-Physique of Young Athletes

-Body Composition of Young Athletes

-Motor Performance Characteristics of Young Athletes

-Physiological Characteristics of Young Athletes

-Does Training for Sport Influence the Growth and Maturity of Young Athletes?

-Gymnastics and Ballet: Special Cases?

-Overview

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Chapter 29. Secular Trends in Growth, Maturation, and Performance

-Definitions

-Sources of Secular Trend Data

-Limitations and Assumptions in Secular Comparisons

-Secular Trends in Body Size

-Secular Trends in Body Proportions

-Secular Trends in Indicators of Maturity

-Secular Trends in Performance

-Secular Trends in Developing Countries

-Factors Underlying Secular Trends

-Summary

-Sources and Suggested Readings
Suggestions for Individual and Group Activities
Index
About the Authors

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