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Gutes Denken: Wie Experten Entscheidungen fällen

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Eine Expedition durch die Landschaft des kritischen Denkens

Wann bezeichnen Psychologen eine Idee als „kreative Einsicht“? Was verstehen Ökonomen unter einem „rationalen Agenten“? Mit welchen logischen Argumenten untermauern Philosophen ihre Forderung, „moralischen Imperativen“ zu gehorchen?

Wenn Experten Entscheidungen fällen, folgen sie dabei gewöhnlich einigen wichtigen, aber bisweilen kontraintuitiven Konzepten. Sie nutzen spezifische ...

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Overview

Eine Expedition durch die Landschaft des kritischen Denkens

Wann bezeichnen Psychologen eine Idee als „kreative Einsicht“? Was verstehen Ökonomen unter einem „rationalen Agenten“? Mit welchen logischen Argumenten untermauern Philosophen ihre Forderung, „moralischen Imperativen“ zu gehorchen?

Wenn Experten Entscheidungen fällen, folgen sie dabei gewöhnlich einigen wichtigen, aber bisweilen kontraintuitiven Konzepten. Sie nutzen spezifische Denkmethoden und Analyseverfahren, um bestimmte Sachverhalte zu beurteilen, etwa wenn es zu ermitteln gilt, ob jemand schuldig oder unschuldig ist, welche Geldanlage die sicherste ist oder welches Medikament eine Krankheit am wirksamsten bekämpft.

Gutes Denken erkundet die Wege, die Fachleute verschiedener Disziplinen beschreiten, um Probleme zu lösen, die unmittelbare Auswirkungen auf unser tägliches Leben haben. Die Lektüre dieses Buches bringt Ihnen die sieben wichtigsten Konzepte nahe und liefert Ihnen so das Rüstzeug, um selbst klarer zu denken, überzeugender zu argumentieren und klüger zu entscheiden.

Cummins bietet einen geistreichen und klar gegliederten Überblick über die entscheidenden Aspekte menschlicher Denkprozesse…. Die klug gewählten Beispiele verankern die Themen unmittelbar in der Alltagserfahrung der Leser.“ Richard Gerrig, Psychologie-Professor an der Stony Brook University und Co-Autor des weltweit bewährten Lehrbuchs „Psychologie“

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Die sieben Schlüsselkonzepte des Denkens

Wenn Sie dieses Buch gelesen haben, werden Sie in zweierlei Hinsicht weiser sein. Sie werden wissen, wie die besten und klügsten Denker entscheiden, argumentieren, Probleme lösen und richtig von falsch unterscheiden. Aber Ihnen wird auch bewusst sein, dass es durchaus nicht immer schlecht ist, wenn man diese Standards nicht erfüllt.

Denise D. Cummins stellt Ihnen die sieben machtvollen Ideen vor, die die Welt verändert haben:

  1. Denken lässt sich automatisieren, daher können wir Maschinen bauen, die denken.
  2. Um Probleme zu lösen, sollten Sie immer Wege suchen, die den Abstand zwischen Ihrer aktuellen Situation und Ihrer Zielsituation verringern. Einsicht ist quasi eine implizite Suche.
  3. Einige Gedanken führen zu weitergehenden Überlegungen, andere tun das nicht, und es gibt Regeln, mit denen Sie feststellen können, welche zur ersten Gruppe gehören und welche zur zweiten.
  4. Um herauszufinden, was wahr ist, sollten Sie am besten zuerst herausfinden, was falsch ist.
  5. Um zu entscheiden, welche Ursache etwas hat, ist es nötig, Alternativen zu bedenken.
  6. Sie werden nicht immer bekommen, was Sie möchten, aber Sie können herausfinden, was Ihnen am ehesten dazu verhelfen wird.
  7. Das Spiel ändert sich, wenn Sie es nicht allein spielen.

[Cummins] diskutiert, wie Ökonomen, Philosophen und andere Fachleute definiert haben, was eine Entscheidung rational oder ein Urteil moralisch macht. Sie legt die sieben Grundsätze des kritischen Denkens dar und erkundet die Taktiken, mit denen sich fehlerhafte Logik korrigieren lässt. Scientific American

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

Stimmen zum Originalbuch

"Good Thinking will take you on a quick and engaging tour of the landscape of human thinking, surveying the phenomena that psychologists and philosophers have found there." --Keith Holyoak, Distinguished Professor of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles

"Cummins provides an entertaining and accessible review of the classical theories of reasoning and decision making." -- Dr. Mike Oaksford, Professor of Psychology, University of London, UK

"...a witty and articulate overview of critical aspects of human thought processes...The astute examples anchor the topics squarely in readers' everyday experience." --Dr. Richard Gerrig, Professor of Psychology and Psycholinguistics, SUNY at Stonybrook

"Good Thinking offers an engaging analysis of seven fundamental modes of human thought. Drawing expertly on a broad range of disciplines and examples from everyday life, Denise Cummins considers both the strengths and weaknesses of our mental machinery and in so doing illuminates key aspects of how we reason and decide."

--Daniel L. Schacter, William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of Psychology, Harvard University, and author of The Seven Sins of Memory: How the Mind Forgets and Remembers

"...the book illuminates the strengths and the pitfalls of the ways people think; readers may be surprised at human cognitive fallibility.... offers a compelling discussion of the current work in cognitive neuroscience that reveals the neural complexities of thought process.... readers who choose to look at this interesting book will be making a good decision.... Recommended..." --B. C. Beins, Ithaca College, CHOICE

"...Good Thinking is cleverly written and well pitched to a college- or university-level audience of undergraduates who would benefit from an excellent survey of concepts and theories that are not likely to be seen elsewhere in a single collection, and it represents some of the more powerful ideas that our intellectual culture considers as the basis for rationality. Virtually every idea in Good Thinking can be gotten elsewhere either in its original form or as part of extended volumes on a specific topic, but having them tied together in a single book written by a single hand gives more life and cohesiveness to the ensemble than might otherwise be the case.... a pleasant way to stimulate the appetite for more.... For some time to come, Good Thinking will be a relevant and useful resource for educators as well as those who seek to reflect on our Western thought traditions and their origins." -Dr. Donald MacGregor, senior research scientist with the Decision Science Research Institute (Decision Research) in Eugene, Oregon

Cambridge University Press Staff Top 5 recommended books and gifts in Philosophy and Psychology, December, 2012

"...the seven basic tenets that guide our critical thinking..." - "We intuitively know that plagiarizing is wrong. In Good Thinking: Seven Powerful Ideas That Influence the Way We Think (Cambridge University Press, 2012), psychologist and philosopher Denise Cummins reveals how we know this. She discusses how economists, philosophers and other experts have helped to define what makes a decision rational or a judgment moral. She lays out the seven basic tenets that guide our critical thinking and explores tactics to correct faulty logic."--Victoria Stern, MindBooks Roundup, Scientific American, December 14, 2012

"...illuminates key aspects of how we reason and decide." - Good Thinking offers an engaging analysis of seven fundamental modes of human thought. Drawing expertly on a broad range of disciplines and examples from everyday life, Denise Cummins considers both the strengths and weaknesses of our mental machinery and in so doing illuminates key aspects of how we reason and decide. -- Daniel L. Schacter, William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of Psychology, Harvard University, and author of The Seven Sins of Memory: How the Mind Forgets and Remembers

"...a quick and engaging tour of the landscape of human thinking..." - If you’ve ever wondered where creative ideas come from, why smart people sometimes do stupid things, why liberals and conservatives disagree about the basics of morality, or why you’ve made decisions you came to regret, you’ll want to read this book. Good Thinking will take you on a quick and engaging tour of the landscape of human thinking, surveying the phenomena that psychologists and philosophers have found there. --Keith Holyoak, Distinguished Professor of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles

"...an entertaining and accessible review of the classical theories of reasoning and decision making..." - In her book, Good Thinking, Denise Cummins provides an entertaining and accessible review of the classical theories of reasoning and decision making that it has taken philosophers and mathematicians almost two millennia of endeavour to construct. Many would argue that these theories are among the towering intellectual achievements of humankind that underpin crucial aspects of the modern world, like computers and quantum theory. However, these theories have received a bad press in the abundance of popular books showing that people's decision-making and reasoning is hopelessly biased and inaccurate compared to these theories. Cummins thesis is that a better appreciation of these theories may lead us to make better decisions and to better understand how others, particularly professionals, make decisions. There is no doubt that aspects of human psychology must be taken into account in good thinking and Cummins deals with these aspects of decision-making as well. In general, though this book functions as a fascinating corrective to the tendency of popular books to deride the only real practical tools we have to aid our attempts to improve our decisions in an uncertain and changing world. -- Dr. Mike Oaksford, Professor of Psychology, Birkbeck College, University of London, UK

"...a witty and articulate overview of critical aspects of human thought..." - Cummins provides a witty and articulate overview of critical aspects of human thought processes. Her analyses of topics such as rational choice, moral judgment, and causal reasoning combine the insights of diverse fields including philosophy, psychology, economics, and neuroscience. The astute examples anchor the topics squarely in readers’ everyday experience. --Dr. Richard Gerrig, Professor of Psychology and Psycholinguistics, SUNY at Stonybrook

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642418099
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 11/14/2014
  • Language: German
  • Edition description: 2015
  • Pages: 350

Meet the Author

Denise Dellarosa Cummins ist Professorin (em.) für Psychologie und Philosophie an der University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign. Zu ihren Forschungsschwerpunkten zählen Denken und Entscheidungsfindung unter evolutionären, vergleichenden und entwicklungspsychologischen Aspekten. Sie hat zahlreiche Fachartikel und ein populärwissenschaftliches Buch (The Other Side of Psychology) verfasst, ist Mitherausgeberin eines zweibändigen Werkes zur Kognitionswissenschaft und führt den Blog „Good Thinking“ auf Psychology Today. Cummins hat an der Yale University, der University of California und am Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung in Berlin geforscht und gelehrt. Sie lebt mit Mann und zwei Töchtern in Champaign.

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Table of Contents

1 Einführung.- 2 Spieltheorie: Der Einzelne entscheidet nicht als Einziger.- 3 Rationale Wahl: Wir wählen die Handlungsalternative aus, die unsere gewünschten Ziele größtmöglich realisieren.- 4 Moralische Urteilsbildung: Wie wir Richtig von Falsch unterscheiden.- 5 Das Spiel der Logik.- 6 Was verursacht was?.- 7 Hypothesentests: Wahrheit und Beweis.- 8 Problemlösung: Vom problemorientierten zum lösungsorientierten Denken.- 9 Analogieschlüsse: Das ist so wie das.- Literatur.- Index.

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