The H.264 Advanced Video Compression Standard / Edition 2

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Overview

H.264 Advanced Video Coding or MPEG-4 Part 10 is fundamental to a growing range of markets such as high definition broadcasting, internet video sharing, mobile video and digital surveillance. This book reflects the growing importance and implementation of H.264 video technology. Offering a detailed overview of the system, it explains the syntax, tools and features of H.264 and equips readers with practical advice on how to get the most out of the standard.

  • Packed with clear examples and illustrations to explain H.264 technology in an accessible and practical way.
  • Covers basic video coding concepts, video formats and visual quality.
  • Explains how to measure and optimise the performance of H.264 and how to balance bitrate, computation and video quality.
  • Analyses recent work on scalable and multi-view versions of H.264, case studies of H.264 codecs and new technological developments such as the popular High Profile extensions.
  • An invaluable companion for developers, broadcasters, system integrators, academics and students who want to master this burgeoning state-of-the-art technology.

"[This book] unravels the mysteries behind the latest H.264 standard and delves deeper into each of the operations in the codec. The reader can implement (simulate, design, evaluate, optimize) the codec with all profiles and levels. The book ends with extensions and directions (such as SVC and MVC) for further research." Professor K. R. Rao, The University of Texas at Arlington, co-inventor of the Discrete Cosine Transform

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470516928
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 6/15/2010
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 346
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.80 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

About the Author

Preface

Glossary

List of Figures

List of Tables

1 Introduction 1

1.1 A change of scene 1

1.2 Driving the change 1

1.3 The role of standards 4

1.4 Why H.264 Advanced Video Coding is important 4

1.5 About this book 5

1.6 Reference 6

2 Video formats and quality 7

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Natural video scenes 7

2.3 Capture 8

2.3.1 Spatial sampling 9

2.3.2 Temporal sampling 9

2.3.3 Frames and fields 11

2.4 Colour spaces 12

2.4.1 RGB 12

2.4.2 YCrCb 13

2.4.3 YCrCb sampling formats 14

2.5 Video formats 16

2.5.1 Intermediate formats 16

2.5.2 Standard Definition 17

2.5.3 High Definition 18

2.6 Quality 19

2.6.1 Subjective quality measurement 20

2.6.2 Objective quality measurement 21

2.7 Summary 24

2.8 References 24

3 Video coding concepts 25

3.1 Introduction 25

3.2 Video CODEC 26

3.3 Prediction model 28

3.3.1 Temporal prediction 28

3.3.2 Spatial model: intra prediction 38

3.4 Image model 40

3.4.1 Predictive image coding 41

3.4.2 Transform coding 42

3.4.3 Quantization 50

3.4.4 Reordering and zero encoding 52

3.5 Entropy coder 57

3.5.1 Predictive coding 57

3.5.2 Variable-length coding 58

3.5.3 Arithmetic coding 65

3.6 The hybrid DPCM/DCT video CODEC model 68

3.7 Summary 79

3.8 References 79

4 What is H.264? 81

4.1 Introduction 81

4.2 What is H.264? 81

4.2.1 A video compression format 81

4.2.2 An industry standard 82

4.2.3 A toolkit for video compression 83

4.2.4 Better video compression 83

4.3 How does an H.264 codec work? 83

4.3.1 Encoder processes 85

4.3.2 Decoder processes 89

4.4 The H.264/AVC Standard 91

4.5 H.264 Profiles and Levels 92

4.6 The H.264 Syntax 94

4.7 H.264 in practice 97

4.7.1 Performance 97

4.7.2 Applications 98

4.8 Summary 98

4.9 References 98

5 H.264 syntax 99

5.1 Introduction 99

5.1.1 A note about syntax examples 99

5.2 H.264 syntax 100

5.3 Frames, fields and pictures 101

5.3.1 Decoding order 104

5.3.2 Display order 104

5.3.3 Reference picture lists 106

5.3.4 Frame and field coding 111

5.4 NAL unit 114

5.5 Parameter Sets 115

5.6 Slice layer 117

5.6.1 Slice types 117

5.6.2 Slice header 117

5.6.3 Slice data 118

5.7 Macroblock layer 119

5.7.1 Overview 119

5.7.2 The INtra PCM mode 121

5.7.3 Macroblock prediction 122

5.7.4 Residual data 124

5.7.5 Macroblock syntax examples 127

5.8 Summary 134

References 135

6 H.264 Prediction 137

6.1 Introduction 137

6.2 Macroblock prediction 137

6.3 Intra prediction 138

6.3.1 4 × 4 luma prediction modes 143

6.3.2 16 × 16 luma prediction modes 146

6.3.3 Chroma prediction modes 147

6.3.4 8 x 8 luma prediction, High profiles 148

6.3.5 Signalling intra prediction modes 148

6.4 Inter prediction 149

6.4.1 Reference pictures 151

6.4.2 Interpolating reference pictures 152

6.4.3 Macroblock prediction 157

6.4.4 Motion vector prediction 162

6.4.5 Motion compensated prediction 162

6.4.6 Inyter prediction examples 164

6.4.7 Prediction structures 169

6.5 Loop filter 171

6.5.1 Boundary strength 172

6.5.2 Filter dicision 173

6.5.3 Filter implementation 174

6.5.4 Loop filter example 174

6.6 Summary 177

6.7 References 177

7 H.264 transform and coding 179

7.1 Introduction 179

7.2 Transform and quantization 179

7.2.1 The H.364 transforms 179

7.2.2 Trasnform processes 180

7.2.3 Tnteger transform and quanitzation: 4 x 4 blocks 185

7.2.4 Interger transform and quantization: 8 x 8 blocks 198

7.2.5 DC transforms 203

7.2.6 Transform and quantization extensions in the High profiles 204

7.3 Block scan orders 206

7.4 Coding 208

7.4.1 Exp-Golomb Coding 208

7.4.2 Context Adaptive Variable Length Coding, CAVLC 210

7.4.3 Context Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding, CABAC 217

7.5 Summary 220

7.6 References 221

8 H.264 conformance, Transport and licensing 223

8.1 Introduction 223

8.2 Conforming to the Standard 223

8.2.1 Profiles 224

8.2.2 Levels 226

8.2.3 Hypthetical Reference Decoder 230

8.2.4 Conformance testing 236

8.3 H.264 coding tools for transport support 237

8.3.1 Redundant slices 237

8.3.2 Arbitrary Slice Order (ASO) 238

8.2.3 Slice Groups/Flexible Macroblock Order (FMO) 238

8.3.4 SP and SI slices 240

8.3.5 Data partitioned slices 243

8.4 Transport of H.264 data 244

8.4.1 Encapsulation in RBSPs, NALUs and packets 244

8.4.2 Transport protocols 245

8.4.3 File formats 247

8.4.4 Coding and transport issues 247

8.5 Supplemental Information 248

8.5.1 Supplemental Enhancement Information (SEI) 248

8.5.2 Video Usability Information (VUI) 248

8.6 Licensing H.264/AVC 248

8.6.1 Video coding patents 250

8.6.2 Video coding standards and patents 252

8.6.3 Licensing H.264/AVC patents 252

8.7 Summary 253

8.8 References 253

9 H.264 performance 255

9.1 Introduction 255

9.2 Experimenting with H.264 256

9.2.1 The JM Reference Software 256

9.2.2 Other software encoders/decoders 261

9.2.3 H.264 stream analysis 263

9.3 Performance comparisons 265

9.3.1 Performance criteria 265

9.3.2 Performance examples: Foreman sequence, QCIF resolution 265

9.3.3 Performance examples: Forman and Container sequences 269

9.3.4 Performance examples: Inter prediction structures 271

9.3.5 Performance examples: H.264 vs. MPEG-4 Visual 273

9.4 Rate control 274

9.4.1 Rate control in the JM reference encoder 276

9.5 Mode selection 279

9.5.1 Rate Distortion Optimized mode selection 281

9.6 Low complexity coding 283

Approximating the cost function 283

9.6.2 Reducing the set of tested modes 284

9.6.3 Early termination 285

9.7 Summary 285

9.8 References 285

10 Extensions and directions 287

10.1 Introduction 287

10.2 Scalable Video Coding 288

10.2.1 Simulcast transmission 288

10.2.2 Scalable transmission 289

10.2.3 Applications of Scalable Video Coding 290

10.2.4 Scalable video Coding in H.264 290

10.2.5 Temporal scalability 292

10.2.6 Quality scalability: overview 294

10.2.7 Spatial scalability: overview 294

10.2.8 Spatial scalability in detail 294

10.2.9 Quality scalibility in detail 298

10.2.10 Combined scalability 299

10.2.11 SVC performance 299

10.3 Multiview Video Coding 302

10.3.1 H.264 Multiview Video Coding 304

10.4 Configurable Video Coding 306

10.4.1 MPEG Reconfigurable Video Coding 307

10.4.2 Fully Configurable Video Coding 308

10.5 Beyond H.264/AVC 310

10.6 Summary 310

10.7 References 311

Index 313

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