Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s

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Overview

This volume covers the long neglected history of Hadhramaut (southern Arabia) during the modern colonial era, together with the history of Hadhrami "colonies" in the Malay world, southern India, the Red Sea, and East Africa.
After an introduction placing Hadhramis in the context of other diasporas, there are sections on local and international politics, social stratification and integration, religious and social reform, and economic dynamics. The conclusion brings the story to the present day and outlines a research agenda.
Many aspects of Indian Ocean history are illuminated by this book, notably the role of non-Western merchants in the spread of capitalism, Islamisation and the controversies which raged within Islam, British and Ottoman strategic concerns, social antagonisms in southern Arabia, and the cosmopolitan character of coastal societies.

Ulrike Freitag, Ph.D. (1991) Freiburg University, Lecturer in Modern Middle Eastern and Gender History (SOAS, London), has published on Arab historiography, and now works on reform movements in Hadhramaut 1880-1967.
William G. Clarence-Smith, Ph.D. (1975) London University, Reader in Asian and African Economic History (SOAS, London) publishes on commodities and traders, and has edited The Economics of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade in the 19th Century (Frank Cass, 1989).

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
'This is an excellent book.'
Abdullah Hassan Al-Saqqaf, Asian Journal of Social Science, 2001.
'Ein wichtiges Buch also, an dem keiner, der sich mit dem Jemen beschäftigt, vorbeikommen wird.'
Esther Peskes, Die Welt des Islams, 1999
'…a valuable addition to the growing literature on the Indian Ocean region.'
Calvin H. Allen, The Journal of Asian Studies.
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Ulrike Freitag, Ph.D. (1991) Freiburg University, Lecturer in Modern Middle Eastern and Gender History (SOAS, London), has published on Arab historiography, and now works on reform movements in Hadhramaut 1880-1967.
William G. Clarence-Smith, Ph.D. (1975) London University, Reader in Asian and African Economic History (SOAS, London) publishes on commodities and traders, and has edited The Economics of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade in the 19th Century (Frank Cass, 1989).
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Table of Contents

List of Maps
Preface and Acknowledgements
Hadhramaut and the Hadhrami Diaspora in the Modern Colonial Era: an Introductory Survey 1
Hadhramaut and the Hadhrami Diaspora: Problems in Theoretical History 19
Expansion, State Foundation and Reform: the Contest for Power in Hadhramaut in the Nineteenth Century 35
Hadhrami Politics 1888-1967: Conflicts of Identity and Interest 51
The Hadhrami Role in the Politics and Society of Colonial India, 1750s to 1950s 67
Hadhramis in the Politics and Administration of the Malay States in the late Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries 82
Dutch Colonial Policy Pertaining to Hadhrami Immigrants 94
Hadhramis in International Politics c. 1750-1967 112
Hadhramis abroad in Hadhramaut: the Muwalladin 131
Reflections on the System of Social Stratification in Hadhramaut 147
Changing Patterns of Hadhrami Migration and Social Integration in East Africa 157
The Hadhrami Diaspora in South-Western India: the Role of the Sayyids of the Malabar Coast 175
Natural Leaders of Native Muslims: Arab Ethnicity and Politics in Java under Dutch Rule 185
The Cult of Saints and Religious Reformism in Hadhramaut 199
Religious Links between Hadhramaut and the Malay-Indonesian World, c. 1850 to c. 1950 217
Islamic Modernism in Colonial Java: the al-Irshad Movement 231
A Hadhrami Religious Scholar in Indonesia: Sayyid Uthman 249
The Impact of Remittances on the Economy of Hadhramaut, 1914-1967 264
The Economic Role of the Hadhrami Diaspora in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, 1820s to 1930s 281
Hadhrami Entrepreneurs in the Malay World, c. 1750 to c. 1940 297
Conclusion: the Diaspora since the Age of Independence 315
Notes on the Contributors 331
Note on Transliteration 335
Glossary 337
Archival Sources and Bibliography 343
Index 367
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