Handbook of Biodiversity Valuation: A Guide for Policy Makers

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Explores the nature of the values associated with biological diversity, and presents methodological approaches to assigning monetary values for policy purposes. The handbook explains the market-based, travel cost, hedonic pricing, contingent valuation, and attribute-based choice model methods, and provides brief international case studies. No index. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9789264197312
  • Publisher: Renouf Publishing Company, Ltd
  • Publication date: 3/1/2002
  • Pages: 160

Table of Contents

Executive Summary 9
I. Introduction 15
1.1 Rationale 15
1.2 Which value? 17
1.3 Which valuation method to use? 18
1.4 What is this Handbook likely to tell you? 20
II. Biodiversity Loss and Biodiversity Value 23
2.1 Why 'value' biodiversity? 23
2.2 Defining biological diversity 24
2.3 The ecological consequences of biodiversity loss 26
2.4 Measuring diversity 29
2.5 Valuation and the Convention on Biological Diversity 34
2.6 Rates of biodiversity loss 36
2.7 Setting priorities for conservation 37
Measures of diversity 39
Measures of threat 39
Measures of potential success 40
2.8 The economic consequences of biodiversity loss 40
Loss of ecosystem function 41
Resilience 42
2.9 Non-economic values 44
III. Values and Decision-Making 47
3.1 A typology of values 47
3.2 Debates about value systems 51
Intrinsic vs instrumental values 51
Instrumental vs higher order instrumental values 52
The zero-one dilemma 53
3.3 Can conservation policy be value-free? 54
3.4 The goals-alternatives matrix 56
3.5 Weighting in alternative decision-making procedures 57
3.6 Multi-criteria approaches 60
3.7 Costs, effectiveness and precaution 64
Cost-based approaches 64
Moral approaches 65
Precautionary approaches 65
3.8 Conclusions 66
IV. Eliciting Values: Deliberative and Inclusionary Procedures 69
4.1 Introduction: forms of deliberative procedures 69
4.2 Deliberative procedures: advantages and disadvantages 71
V. Values and Time 75
5.1 Biodiversity as a long-term asset 75
5.2 Time and decision-making 76
5.3 Discounting and the very long term 78
VI. Economic Values: The Basics 81
6.1 The nature of economic value 81
6.2 Benefits and consumer's surplus 83
6.3 Total economic value 84
6.4 The cost-benefit formula 85
6.5 Valuing biodiversity as a support function 86
VII. Economic Valuation Methods Based on Market Prices 89
7.1 Introduction 89
7.2 Market prices 89
7.3 Observed market and related good prices 90
7.4 The productivity approach 92
7.5 Cost-based methods 93
7.6 Revealed preferences 95
7.7 Revealed preference: travel cost methods (TCM) 96
7.8 Application of the travel cost method for biodiversity 101
7.9 Hedonic pricing 102
7.10 Towards economic valuation protocols 104
VIII. Stated Preference Methods 105
8.1 Introduction 105
8.2 The contingent valuation method 107
8.3 Design of a CV study 108
8.4 Analysing CVM data 112
8.5 CVM and biodiversity valuation 114
8.6 Attribute based choice modelling 114
8.7 Choice experiments 115
8.8 Contingent ranking, rating and paired comparison methods 117
Very high preference 118
8.9 Common design features 118
8.10 Analysing ABCM data 119
8.11 Choice modelling versus contingent valuation? 119
IX. Economic Valuation: Benefits Transfer 121
9.1 The aim and nature of benefits transfer 121
9.2 Forms of benefit transfer 122
9.3 Case study: a meta-analysis of UK woodland recreation values 124
9.4 Case study: a meta-analysis of wetland values 126
9.5 Case study: the Szigetkoz wetland in Hungary 129
9.6 Testing for the validity of transferring benefit functions 130
9.7 Conclusions 132
X. Biodiversity Values and the Policy Process 133
10.1 The policy context for biodiversity values 133
10.2 Land use decisions and sustainable use of biodiversity 138
10.3 Precautionary approaches 140
Safe minimum standards 141
The precautionary principle 142
10.4 Setting priorities for biodiversity conservation revisited: cost-benefit analysis 143
10.5 Focusing conservation policies: species or ecosystems? 146
References 147
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