Handbook of Bioentrepreneurship / Edition 1

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Providing an important and timely overview of research in the field of entrepreneurship in biotechnology, The Handbook of Bioentrepreneurship examines one of the most promising industries of the 21st century. While genetically engineered foods and biopharmaceuticals have made biotechnology part of our everyday lives, launching a bioventure is among the most complex and risky entrepreneurial undertakings, given long development cycles, high levels of technological and market uncertainty, and extraordinary capital requirements. Featuring unparalleled, in-depth analysis from experts around the world, the Handbook sheds light on emerging business models and strategies, geographical and regional networks, cooperation between firms and universities, legal frameworks, and policy issues that influence the context in which biotech ventures are established and the conditions under which they may flourish. Reviewing and showcasing state-of-the-art data, examples, theoretical insights, and practical applications, the Handbook will serve as an essential resource for researchers and students in entrepreneurship, corporate strategy, technology management, and economic policy, as well as business leaders, investors, scientists, and policymakers with a stake in the dynamic, high-growth industry of biotechnology.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
From the reviews:

“The Handbook … provides a good overview of the current state of research in bioentrepreneurship. … The volume offers value for academics by highlighting … and pointing to gaps that represent opportunities for future work. … those in the commercial world may derive value from discussion of the more strategic and operational issues. … it is a good candidate for recommendation to the university library, and commercial organizations and government/economics development agencies might value it on the shelf of their resources centre.” (Sarah Cooper, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 28 (1), 2010)

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Holger Patzelt is a senior research fellow at the Max Planck Institute of Economics in Jena, Germany. His research focuses on high technology entrepreneurship with a particular emphasis on strategic alliances and human capital. He has published in leading journals of natural sciences and social sciences. He holds a PhD in life sciences from the University of Heidelberg, Germany, and a PhD in management from the University of Bamberg, Germany.

Thomas Brenner is associate director of the Max Planck Institute of Economics in Jena, Germany, and lecturer at the University of Jena. His research focuses on the spatial distribution of industry activities and local clustering. He has published a book on "Local Industrial Clusters: Existence, Emergence and Evolution" and many papers in leading economic and geographic journals. He holds a PhD in physics from the University of Stuttgart, Germany, and a PhD in economics from the University of Jena, Germany.

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Table of Contents

Part I
1 Introduction to the Handbook of Bioentrepreneurship Holger Patzelt Thomas Brenner 1 References 6
2 Biotechnology Dynamics at the Global Scale Philip Cooke 7
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 The Global Health Care Market in Relation to Biotechnology 9
2.3 Global Bioregions 13
2.4 The World Leaders in Brief: Top Bioclusters in the USA 15
2.5 Comparison of UK and German Clusters 19
2.6 Bioregions and Their Key Characteristics Elsewhere 23
2.6.1 Economic Geography of Clusters Spawned by Pharmaceuticals Firms 24
2.6.2 The Research and DBF-led Clusters in Israel and Canada 28
2.7 Conclusions 31 References 32
3 Geographic Clustering in Biotechnology: Social Networks and Firm Foundings Dirk Fornahl Olav Sorenson 35
3.1 Introduction 35
3.2 Social Networks and Geographic Proximity 38
3.3 Social Networks and Entrepreneurship 40
3.3.1 Opportunity Perception 40
3.3.2 Intellectual Capital 42
3.3.3 Human Capital 43
3.3.4 Financial Capital 44
3.4 Implications and Evidence 45
3.5 Policy Implications 47
3.6 Summary and Outlook 48 References 49
4 Innovation Networks in Biotechnology Pier Paolo Saviotti David Catherine 53
4.1 Introduction 53
4.2 The Nature of Innovation Networks 55
4.2.1 The Entry of New Firms 55
4.2.2 Biotechnology 56
4.2.3 The Changing Role of Universities 57
4.2.4 Theories of Industrial Organization 59
4.2.5 Innovation Networks 60
4.3 Recent Developments in Network Dynamics 68
4.4 Summary and Conclusions 76 References 78 Part II
5 Strategy and Strategic Thinking in Biotechnology Entrepreneurship Alan L. Carsrud Malin Brannback Maija Renko 83
5.1 Introduction 83
5.2 SectorDevelopment Review 85
5.3 Innovation in Biotechnology 88
5.4 Theoretical Bases for Entrepreneurial Biotechnology 90
5.5 Strategic Management, Entrepreneurship, and Biotechnology 91
5.6 Strategy Components in Early-Stage Biotechnology Firms 93
5.6.1 Proactiveness 93
5.6.2 Fit 94
5.6.3 Reactiveness 96
5.6.4 Traditions and History 96
5.7 Discussion and Conclusions 97 References 99
6 Research on Strategic Alliances in Biotechnology: An Assessment and Review Maxim Sytch Philipp Bubenzer 105
6.1 Introduction 105
6.2 Why and with Whom Do Biotechnology Firms Form Alliances? 107
6.2.1 Access to Knowledge and Other Complementary Resources 108
6.2.2 Pursuit of Legitimacy 109
6.2.3 Choosing Partners 110
6.3 Governance of Alliances 111
6.4 Consequences of Alliances 115
6.4.1 Consequences of Accessing Knowledge and Other Complementary Resources 116
6.4.2 Consequences of Enhancing Legitimacy 120
6.4.3 Taking Off the Rose-Colored Glasses: Alliances as Relational Liability 121
6.5 Future Research 124 References 126
7 Mergers and Acquisitions in the Biotechnology Industry Lars Schweizer Dodo zu Knyphausen-Aufsess 133
7.1 Introduction 133
7.2 Development of the Biotechnology Industry and the Need for M&A 134
7.2.1 The Development of the Biotechnology Industry from a Scientific Perspective 134
7.2.2 The Development of the Biotechnology Industry from an Organizational Perspective 135
7.2.3 The Development of the Biotechnology Industry from a Financial Perspective 137
7.3 Layers of M&A Activities 138
7.3.1 M&A Activities Among Biotechnology Companies 138
7.3.2 M&A Activities Between Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Companies 141
7.4 Summary and Future Research 144 References 145
8 Synergy, Strategy and Serendipity: Kirin Brewery's Entry into Biopharmaceuticals Michael J. Lynskey 149
8.1 Introduction 149
8.2 The Locus of Entrepreneurship 150
8.3 Background 151
8.4 Synergy 152
8.4.1 Opportunity Recognition 155
8.4.2 Early Efforts with Erythropoietin 155
8.4.3 Importance of Tacit Knowledge 156
8.4.4 Scientific Gatekeepers and Academic Collaboration 157
8.5 Serendipity 159
8.5.1 Origins of the Alliance with Amgen 160
8.5.2 Structure of the Joint Venture 162
8.5.3 Kirin's Contributions and Manufacturing Scale-Up 163
8.5.4 Outcome of the Joint Venture 164
8.5.5 Key Success Factors 165
8.6 Strategy 167
8.6.1 Targeting Niche Therapeutic Fields 167
8.6.2 Cell Therapy and Stem Cell Research 168
8.6.3 Monoclonal Antibodies and the Transgenic Mouse 169
8.7 Conclusions 172 References 174 Part III
9 A Survey Review of University Biotechnology and Entrepreneurship Commercialization David B. Audretsch T. Taylor Aldridge Marcus Perry 179
9.1 Introduction 179
9.2 Commercialization of Science and Entrepreneurial Choice 180
9.3 Scientist Biotech Entrepreneurship 183
9.4 Conclusions 188 References 189
10 University-Based Biotechnology Spin-Offs Amalya L. Oliver 193
10.1 Introduction 193
10.1.1 The Context of the Biotechnology Industry 193
10.1.2 Entrepreneurial Universities 194
10.2 Scientific Entrepreneurship 196
10.2.1 Changes in Academic Science 196
10.3 University Spin-Offs and University-Based Spin-Offs 198
10.3.1 University-Based Spin-Offs as a New Organizational Form 199
10.3.2 Levels of Analysis of USOs and USBOs 200
10.3.3 A Life Cycle Approach to USOs 205
10.4 Integration, Complexities and New Research Directions 205 References 207 Part IV
11 Patenting Biotechnology Saradindu Bhaduri 211
11.1 Introduction 211
11.2 Biotechnology Industry: Meaning and Scope 214
11.2.1 Genetic Engineering: Basic Features 214
11.2.2 Genetic Engineering: Continuity or Discontinuity? 215
11.3 Patents: An Overview 216
11.3.1 Basic Issues 216
11.3.2 Evolution of Patents in Biotechnology 220
11.4 Patenting Biotechnology: Implications 222
11.4.1 Patenting Life Forms and 'Ordre Public': Basic Issues and Inter-country Comparison 222
11.4.2 Implications of Patent Length 224
11.4.3 Implications of Patent Scope 225
11.4.4 Benefit Sharing: 'Bio-Diversity' vis-a-vis 'Indigenous Science' 238
11.5 Conclusion 240 References 241
12 Legal Frameworks and Public Support in the Biotechnology Industry Dirk Engel Oliver Heneric 249
12.1 Introduction 249
12.2 Legal Framework and Public Support: Rationales and Economic Relevance 250
12.2.1 Rationales for Public Support and a Legal Framework 250
12.2.2 The Impact of Public R&D Funding: Empirical Findings 252
12.2.3 Evidence Concerning the Impact of Legal Framework Changes 257
12.3 Legal Framework Changes in Germany 258
12.4 An Empirical Assessment of the Contribution of Legal Framework Change 266
12.5 Future Research and Concluding Remarks 271 References 272 Index 275
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