Handbook of Electrical Power System Dynamics: Modeling, Stability, and Control

Overview

Complete guidance for understanding electrical power system dynamics and blackouts

This handbook offers a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of power system dynamics. Addressing the full range of topics, from the fundamentals to the latest technologies in modeling, stability, and control, Handbook of Electrical Power System Dynamics provides engineers with hands-on guidance for understanding the phenomena leading to blackouts so they can ...

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Overview

Complete guidance for understanding electrical power system dynamics and blackouts

This handbook offers a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of power system dynamics. Addressing the full range of topics, from the fundamentals to the latest technologies in modeling, stability, and control, Handbook of Electrical Power System Dynamics provides engineers with hands-on guidance for understanding the phenomena leading to blackouts so they can design the most appropriate solutions for a cost-effective and reliable operation.

Focusing on system dynamics, the book details analytical methods of power system behavior along with models for the main components of power plants and control systems used in dispatch centers. Special emphasis is given to evaluation methods for rotor angle stability and voltage stability as well as the control mechanism for frequency and voltage. With contributions from international experts in both academia and industry, the book features:

  • Critical insight into new trends in power system operation and control
  • Numerous examples and graphics, including more than 600 figures and 1,200 equations
  • In-depth coverage of wind generation, an alternative energy system
  • An easily accessible presentation for readers with varied experience, from students to practicing engineers

An invaluable resource for power system engineers and smart grid analysts, this is also an excellent reference for system operators, utility workers, manufacturers, consultants, vendors, and researchers.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“For power electronics professionals there is great opportunity to assist society energy security needs with innovations in power electronics for reactive power control, power flow control, advanced energy storage technologies for frequency regulation, secure communications, and other aspects of the smart grid.” (IEEE Power Electronics Society, 1 May 2013)
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Product Details

Meet the Author

MIRCEA EREMIA, PhD, is Full Professor in the Electrical Power Systems Department at the University Politehnica of Bucharest. He has authored or coauthored more than 150 journal and conference papers as well as ten books in the field of electric power systems. Professor Eremia has extensive experience in power system analysis and engineering education.

MOHAMMAD SHAHIDEHPOUR, PhD, is Bodine Chair Professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and Director of the Robert W. Galvin Center for Electricity Innovation at Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago. He is Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid and an editorial board member of IEEE Power and Energy Magazine.

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Table of Contents

Foreword xxiii

Acknowledgments xxv

Contributors xxvii

1. INTRODUCTION 1
Mircea Eremia and Mohammad Shahidehpour

PART I POWER SYSTEM MODELING AND CONTROL 7

2. SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR AND INDUCTION MOTOR 9
Mircea Eremia and Constantin Bulac

2.1. Theory and Modeling of Synchronous Generator 9

2.2. Theory and Modeling of the Induction Motor 114

3. MODELING THE MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE CLASSICAL POWER PLANTS 137
Mohammad Shahidehpour, Mircea Eremia, and Lucian Toma

3.1. Introduction 137

3.2. Types of Turbines 138

3.3. Thermal Power Plants 143

3.4. Combined-Cycle Power Plants 158

3.5. Nuclear Power Plants 167

3.6. Hydraulic Power Plants 169

4. WIND POWER GENERATION 179
Mohammad Shahidehpour and Mircea Eremia

4.1. Introduction 179

4.2. Some Characteristics of Wind Power Generation 181

4.3. State of the Art Technologies 184

4.4. Modeling the Wind Turbine Generators 200

4.5. Fault Ride-Through Capability 223

5. SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS CALCULATION 229
Nouredine Hadjsaid, Ion TriSstiu, and Lucian Toma

5.1. Introduction 229

5.2. Characteristics of Short-Circuit Currents 232

5.3. Methods of Short-Circuit Currents Calculation 236

5.4. Calculation of Short-Circuit Current Components 264

6. ACTIVE POWER AND FREQUENCY CONTROL 291
Les Pereira

6.1. Introduction 291

6.2. Frequency Deviations in Practice 293

6.3. Typical Standards and Policies for "Active Power and Frequency Control" or "Load Frequency Control" 294

6.4. System Modeling, Inertia, Droop, Regulation, and Dynamic Frequency Response 297

6.5. Governor Modeling 302

6.6. AGC Principles and Modeling 328

6.7. Other Topics of Interest Related to Load Frequency Control 336

7. VOLTAGE AND REACTIVE POWER CONTROL 340
Sandro Corsi and Mircea Eremia

7.1. Relationship Between Active and Reactive Powers and Voltage 342

7.2. Equipments for Voltage and Reactive Power Control 347

7.3. Grid Voltage and Reactive Power Control Methods 374

7.4. Grid Hierarchical Voltage Regulation 399

7.5. Implementation Study of the Secondary Voltage Regulation in Romania 423

7.6. Examples of Hierarchical Voltage Control in the World 429

PART II POWER SYSTEM STABILITY AND PROTECTION 451

8. BACKGROUND OF POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 453
S.S. (Mani) Venkata, Mircea Eremia, and Lucian Toma

8.1. Introduction 453

8.2. Classification of Power Systems Stability 453

8.3. Parallelism Between Voltage Stability and Angular Stability 469

8.4. Importance of Security for Power System Stability 469

9. SMALL-DISTURBANCE ANGLE STABILITY AND ELECTROMECHANICAL OSCILLATION DAMPING 477
Roberto Marconato and Alberto Berizzi

9.1. Introduction 477

9.2. The Dynamic Matrix 478

9.3. A General Simplified Approach 482

9.4. Major Factors Affecting the Damping of Electromechanical Oscillations 501

9.5. Damping Improvement 546

9.6. Typical Cases of Interarea Or Low-Frequency Electromechanical Oscillations 564

10. TRANSIENT STABILITY 570
Nikolai Voropai and Constantin Bulac

10.1. General Aspects 570

10.2. Direct Methods for Transient Stability Assessment 572

10.3. Integration Methods for Transient Stability Assessment 603

10.4. Dynamic Equivalents 614

10.5. Transient Stability Assessment of Large Electric Power Systems 638

10.6. Application 645

11. VOLTAGE STABILITY 657
Mircea Eremia and Constantin Bulac

11.1. Introduction 657

11.2. System Characteristics and Load Modeling 658

11.3. Static Aspects of Voltage Stability 667

11.4. Voltage Instability Mechanisms: Interaction Between Electrical Network, Loads, and Control Devices 674

11.5. Voltage Stability Assessment Methods 688

11.6. Voltage Instability Countermeasures 716

11.7. Application 724

12. POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION 737
Klaus-Peter Brand and Ivan De Mesmaeker

12.1. Introduction 737

12.2. Summary of IEC 61850 744

12.3. The Protection Chain in Details 746

12.4. Transmission and Distribution Power System Structures 753

12.5. Properties of the Three-Phase Systems Relevant for Protection 755

12.6. Protection Functions Sorted According to the Objects Protected 759

12.7. From Single Protection Functions to System Protection 773

12.8. Conclusions 780

PART III GRID BLACKOUTS AND RESTORATION PROCESS 787

13. MAJOR GRID BLACKOUTS: ANALYSIS, CLASSIFICATION, AND PREVENTION 789
Yvon Besanger, Mircea Eremia, and Nikolai Voropai

13.1. Introduction 789

13.2. Description of Some Previous Blackouts 792

13.3. Analysis of Blackouts 835

13.4. Economical and Social Effects 847

13.5. Recommendations for Preventing Blackouts 849

13.6. On Some Defense and Restoration Actions 850

13.7. Survivability/vulnerability of Electric Power Systems 856

13.8. Conclusions 860

14. RESTORATION PROCESSES AFTER BLACKOUTS 864
Alberto Borghetti, Carlo Alberto Nucci, and Mario Paolone

14.1. Introduction 864

14.2. Overview of The Restoration Process 865

14.3. Black-Start-Up Capabilities of Thermal Power Plant: Modeling and Computer Simulations 869

14.4. Description of Computer Simulators 888

14.5. Concluding Remarks 896

15. COMPUTER SIMULATION OF SCALE-BRIDGING TRANSIENTS IN POWER SYSTEMS 900
Kai Strunz and Feng Gao

15.1. Bridging of Instantaneous and Phasor Signals 901

15.2. Network Modeling 903

15.3. Modeling of Power System Components 909

15.4. Application: Simulation of Blackout 923

References 926

Index 929

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