Handbook of Nanoscopy

Overview

This completely revised successor to the Handbook of Microscopy supplies in-depth coverage of all imaging technologies from the optical to the electron and scanning techniques. Adopting a twofold approach, the book firstly presents the various technologies as such, before going on to cover the materials class by class, analyzing how the different imaging methods can be successfully applied. It covers the latest developments in techniques, such as in-situ TEM, 3D imaging in TEM ...

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Handbook of Nanoscopy

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Overview

This completely revised successor to the Handbook of Microscopy supplies in-depth coverage of all imaging technologies from the optical to the electron and scanning techniques. Adopting a twofold approach, the book firstly presents the various technologies as such, before going on to cover the materials class by class, analyzing how the different imaging methods can be successfully applied. It covers the latest developments in techniques, such as in-situ TEM, 3D imaging in TEM and SEM, as well as a broad range of material types, including metals,
alloys, ceramics, polymers, semiconductors, minerals, quasicrystals, amorphous solids, among others. The volumes are divided between methods and applications, making this both a reliable reference and handbook for chemists, physicists, biologists, materials scientists and engineers, as well as graduate students and their lecturers.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Undoubtedly, this is a valuable addition to any material laboratory for motivating researchers/students togain new ideas on using microscopy methods to fundamentally understand their materials and technologies." (Nanomaterials and Energy, 19 February 2013)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783527317066
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 5/21/2012
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 1450
  • Product dimensions: 6.99 (w) x 9.49 (h) x 2.76 (d)

Meet the Author

Gustaaf Van Tendeloo studied physics and graduated from the University of Antwerp in 1974. He is now a professor at the University of Antwerp (UA) and part time professor at the University of Brussels (VUB). His research focuses on the applications of electron microscopy to different aspects of materials science. He is the author of 700 publications with over 16 000 citations to his work. Professor Van Tendeloo is the head of the electron microscopy group EMAT and director of the "Nano Center of Excellence" of the University. In 2009, he received an ERC
Advanced Grant.

Dirk Van Dyck is professor in physics and honorary vice-rector for research at the University of Antwerp. He graduated from the University of Antwerp in 1976 and spent his career at this University. Professor Van Dyck and has authored over 300 scientific publications in international journals and was invited speaker at numerous conferences on electron microscopy and image processing. He was one of the co-editors of the Handbook of Microscopy. He received the Honory Franqui Chair of the University of Leuven and holds a Honorary Doctorship of the University of Lima.

Stephen J. Pennycook is a Corporate Fellow in the Materials Science and Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and leader of the Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Group. He graduated from the University of Cambridge in 1975, moving to Oak Ridge
National Laboratory in 1982. Professor Pennycook has authored over 380 scientific publications in international journals and was invited speaker at over 200 conferences. He is a member of the editorial boards of four journals and a fellow of five professional societies. For his work on Z-contrast microscopy he was awarded the Materials Research Society Medal and the Thomas Young Medal of the Institute of Physics.

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Table of Contents

VOLUME 1

PREFACE

THE PAST, THE PRESENT, AND THE FUTURE OF NANOSCOPY

PART I: Methods

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Introduction

The Instrument

Imaging and Diffraction Modes

Dynamical Diffraction Theory

ATOMIC RESOLUTION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Introduction

Principles of Linear Image Formation

Imaging in the Electron Microscope

Experimental HREM

Quantitative HREM

ULTRAHIGH-RESOLUTION TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AT NEGATIVE SPHERICAL ABERRATION

Introduction

The Principles of Atomic-Resolution Imaging

Inversion of the Imaging Process

Case Study: SrTiO3

Practical Examples of Application of NCSI Imaging

Z-CONTRAST IMAGING

Recent Progress

Introduction to the Instrument

Imaging in the STEM

Future Outlook

ELECTRON HOLOGRAPHY

Image-Plane Off-Axis Holography Using the Electron Biprism

Properties of the Reconstructed Wave

Holographic Investigations

Special Techniques

Summary

LORENTZ MICROSCOPY AND ELECTRON HOLOGRAPHY OF MAGNETIC MATERIALS

Introduction

Lorentz Microscopy

Off-Axis Electron Holography

Discussion and Conclusions

ELECTRON TOMOGRAPHY

History and Background

Theory of Tomography

Electron Tomography, Missing Wedge, and Imaging Modes

STEM Tomography and Applications

Hollow-Cone DF Tomography

Diffraction Contrast Tomography

Electron Holographic Tomography

Inelastic Electron Tomography

Advanced Reconstruction Techniques

Quantification and Atomic Resolution Tomography

STATISTICAL PARAMETER ESTIMATION THEORY - A TOOL FOR QUANTITATIVE ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Introduction

Methodology

Electron Microscopy Applications

Conclusions

DYNAMIC TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Introduction

Time-Resolved Studies Using Electrons

Building a DTEM

Applications of DTEM

Future Developments for DTEM

Conclusions

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AS NANOLAB

TEM and Measuring the Electrical Properties

TEM with MEMS-Based Heaters

TEM with Gas Nanoreactors

TEM with Liquid Nanoreactors

TEM and Measuring Optical Properties

Sample Preparation for Nanolab Experiments

ATOMIC-RESOLUTION ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Introduction

Atomic-Resolution ETEM

Development of Atomic-Resolution ETEM

Experimental Procedures

Applications with Examples

Nanoparticles and Catalytic Materials

Oxides

In situ Atomic Scale Twinning Transformations in Metal Carbides

Dynamic Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

Technological Benefits of Atomic-Resolution ETEM

Other Advances

Reactions in the Liquid Phase

In situ Studies with Aberration Correction

Examples and Discussion

Applications to Biofuels

Conclusions

SPECKLES IN IMAGES AND DIFFRACTION PATTERNS

Introduction

What Is Speckle?

What Causes Speckle?

Diffuse Scattering

From Bragg Reflections to Speckle

Coherence

Fluctuation Electron Microscopy

Variance versus Mean

Speckle Statistics

Possible Future Directions for Electron Speckle Analysis

COHERENT ELECTRON DIFFRACTIVE IMAGING

Introduction

Coherent Nanoarea Electron Diffraction

The Noncrystallographic Phase Problem

Coherent Diffractive Imaging of Finite Objects

Phasing Experimental Diffraction Pattern

Conclusions

SAMPLE PREPARATION TECHNIQUES FOR TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Introduction

Indirect Preparation Methods

Direct Preparation Methods

Summary

SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY - HISTORY, BACKGROUND, AND STATE OF THE ART

Introduction

Detecting Evanescent Waves by Near-Field Microscopy: Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

Interaction of Tip - Sample Electrons Detected by Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy

Methods for the Detection of Electric/Electronic Sample Properties

Methods for the Detection of Electromechanical and Thermoelastic Quantities

Advanced SFM/SEM Microscopy

SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY - FORCES AND CURRENTS IN THE NANOSCALE WORLD

Introduction

Scanning Probe Microscopy-the Science of Localized Probes

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Related Techniques

Force-Based SPM Measurements

Voltage Modulation SPMs

Current Measurements in SPM

Emergent SPM Methods

Manipulation of Matter by SPM

Perspectives

SCANNING BEAM METHODS

Scanning Microscopy

Conclusions

FUNDAMENTALS OF THE FOCUSED ION BEAM SYSTEM

Focused Ion Beam Principles

FIB Techniques

VOLUME 2

PREFACE

LOW-ENERGY ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Introduction

Theoretical Foundations

Instrumentation

Areas of Application

Discussion

Concluding Remarks

SPIN-POLARIZED LOW-ENERGY ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Introduction

Theoretical Foundations

Instrumentation

Areas of Application

Discussion

Concluding Remarks

IMAGING SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROSCOPY

Fundamentals

SIMS Techniques

Biological SIMS

Conclusions

SOFT X-RAY IMAGING AND SPECTROMICROSCOPY

Introduction

Experimental Techniques

Data Analysis Methods

Selected Applications

Future Outlook and Summary

ATOM PROBE TOMOGRAPHY: PRINCIPLE AND APPLICATIONS

Introduction

Basic Principles

Field Ion Microscopy

Atom Probe Tomography

Conclusion

SIGNAL AND NOISE MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION IN MRI

Probability Density Functions in MRI

Signal Amplitude Estimation

Noise Variance Estimation

Conclusions

3-D SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION FROM STEREO SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY IMAGES

Introduction

Matching Stereo Images

Conclusions

PART II: Applications

NANOPARTICLES

Introduction

Imaging Nanoparticles

Electron Tomography of Nanoparticles

Nanoanalytical Characterization of Nanoparticles

In situ TEM Characterization of Nanoparticles

NANOWIRES AND NANOTUBES

Introduction

Structures of Nanowires and Nanotubes

Defects in Nanowires

In situ Observation of the Growth Process of Nanowires and Nanotubes

In situ Electric Transport Property of Carbon Nanotubes

In situ TEM Investigation of Electrochemical Properties of Nanowires

Summary

CARBON NANOFORMS

Imaging Carbon Nanoforms Using Conventional Electron Microscopy

Analysis of Carbon Nanoforms Using Aberration-Corrected Electron Microscopes

Ultrafast Electron Microscopy

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)

Scanning Photocurrent Microscopy (SPCM)

X-Ray Electrostatic Force Microscopy (X-EFM)

Atomic Force Microscopy

Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope

Tip-Enhanced Raman and Confocal Microscopy

Tip-Enhanced Photoluminescence Microscopy

Fluorescence Quenching Microscopy

Fluorescence Microscopy

Single-Shot Extreme Ultraviolet Laser Imaging

Nanoscale Soft X-Ray Imaging

Scanning Photoelectron Microscopy

METALS AND ALLOYS

Formation of Nanoscale Deformation Twins by Shockley Partial Dislocation Passage

Minimal Strain at Austenite-Martensite Interface in Ti-Ni-Pd

Atomic Structure of Ni4Ti3 Precipitates in Ni-Ti

Ni-Ti Matrix Deformation and Concentration Gradients in the Vicinity of Ni4Ti3 Precipitates

Elastic Constant Measurements of Ni4Ti3 Precipitates

New APB-Like Defect in Ti-Pd Martensite Determined by HRSTEM

Strain Effects in Metallic Nanobeams

Adiabatic Shear Bands in Ti6Al4V

Electron Tomography

The Ultimate Resolution

IN SITU TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY ON METALS

Introduction

In situ TEM Experiments

Grain Boundary Dislocation Dynamics Metals

In situ TEM Tensile Experiments

In situ TEM Compression Experiments

Conclusions

SEMICONDUCTORS AND SEMICONDUCTING DEVICES

Introduction

Nanoscopic Applications on Silicon-Based Semiconductor Devices

Conclusions

COMPLEX OXIDE MATERIALS

Introduction

Aberration-Corrected Spectrum Imaging in the STEM

Imaging of Oxygen Lattice Distortions in Perovskites and Oxide Thin Films and Interfaces

Atomic-Resolution Effects in the Fine Structure - Further Insights into Oxide Interface Properties

Applications of Ionic Conductors: Studies of Colossal Ionic Conductivity in Oxide Superlattices

Applications of Cobaltites: Spin-State Mapping with Atomic Resolution

Summary

APPLICATION OF TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY IN THE RESEARCH OF INORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAIC MATERIALS

Introduction

Experimental

Atomic Structure and Electronic Properties of c-Si/a-Si:H Heterointerfaces

Interfaces and Defects in CdTe Solar Cells

Influences of Oxygen on Interdiffusion at CdS/CdTe Heterojunctions

Microstructure Evolution of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Films fromCu Rich to In Rich

Microstructure of Surface Layers in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films

Chemical Fluctuation-Induced Nanodomains in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Films

Conclusions and Future Directions

POLYMERS

Foreword

A Brief Introduction on Printable Solar Cells

Morphology Requirements of Photoactive Layers in PSCs

Our Characterization Toolbox

How It All Started: First Morphology Studies

Contrast Creation in Purely Carbon-Based BHJ Photoactive Layers

Nanoscale Volume Information: Electron Tomography of PSCs

One Example of Electron Tomographic Investigation: P3HT/PCBM

Quantification of Volume Data

Outlook and Concluding Remarks

FERROIC AND MULTIFERROIC MATERIALS

Multiferroicity

Ferroic Domain Patterns and Their Microscopical Observation

The Internal Structure of Domain Walls

Domain Structures Related to Amorphization

Dynamical Properties of Domain Boundaries

Conclusion

THREE-DIMENSIONAL IMAGING OF BIOMATERIALS WITH ELECTRON TOMOGRAPHY

Introduction

Biological Tomographic Techniques

Examples of Electron Tomography Biomaterials

Outlook

SMALL ORGANIC MOLECULES AND HIGHER HOMOLOGS

Introduction

Optical Microscopy

Scanning Electron Microscopy - SEM

Atomic Force and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (AFM and STM)

Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)

Summary

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