Handbook of Organic Food Safety and Quality

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Demand for organic food has increased rapidly over the past two decades, but in recent years the safety and quality of organic foods have been questioned. If consumer confidence is to remain high, the safety, quality and health benefits of organic foods must be assured. With its distinguished editors and team of top international contributors, Handbook of organic food safety and quality provides a comprehensive review of the latest research in the area. Part I provides an introduction to basic quality and safety with chapters on factors affecting the nutritional quality of foods, quality assurance and consumer expectations. Part II discusses the primary quality and safety issues related to the production of organic livestock foods including the effects of feeding regimes and husbandry on dairy products, poultry and pork. Part III covers the main quality and safety issues concerning the production of organic crop foods and the final part focuses on assuring quality and safety throughout the food chain.

The Handbook of organic food safety and quality will be a standard reference for professionals and producers within the industry concerned with improving and assuring the quality and safety of organic foods.

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Julia Cooper is a Senior Research Fellow for the Nafferton Ecological Farming Group (NEFG) in the School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (AFRD) at Newcastle University, UK.

Carlo Leifert is Professor of Ecological Agriculture, NEFG group leader and Director of the Stockbridge Technology Centre (STC) at Newcastle University, UK.

Urs Niggli is Director of the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture in Switzerland. Many of the authors that have contributed to the book are partners or collaborators in the EU integrated project QualityLowInputFood (FP6-2002-Food-1-506358) and a range of chapters report results from the project.

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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details     xiii
Introduction   C. Leifert     1
Organic food safety and quality: introduction and overview
History and concepts of food quality and safety in organic food production and processing   U. Niggli     9
Introduction     9
History of different food concepts of organic farming     10
Where are modern organic food and farming concepts heading?     14
Conclusions     21
References     21
Nutritional quality of foods   C. J. Seal   K. Brandt     25
Introduction     25
Methods for determining changes in nutritional quality     27
Conclusions     37
References     38
Quality assurance, inspection and certification of organic foods   B. van Elzakker   J. Neuendorff     41
Introduction to quality assurance in organic foods     41
The regulation     42
Responsibilities     43
Quality assurance     44
Private, additional certifications     45
Quality assurance to ensure quality and safety of organic and 'low input' foods     47
Risk assessment in organic quality assurance     48
Outlook     50
Sources of further information and advice     51
References     52
A new food quality concept based on life processes   J. Bloksma   M. Northolt   M. Huber   G-J. van der Burgt   L. van de Vijver     53
Introduction     53
Description of the inner quality concept     54
Method for validation of the inner quality concept     61
Experiments to validate the inner quality concept     64
Progress made in the validation of the concept     69
Perspective for farmers, traders and consumers     70
References     71
Food consumers and organic agriculture   E. Oughton   C. Ritson     74
Introduction     74
The expanding organic market: consumer led or producer driven?     77
Factors influencing organic purchase     80
The price premium     87
Conclusions     91
References     92
Organic livestock foods
Effects of organic and conventional feeding regimes and husbandry methods on the quality of milk and dairy products   R. F. Weller   C. L. Marley   J. M. Moorby     97
Introduction     97
Quality parameters in dairy products     98
Factors affecting the nutritional quality of liquid milk and milk products     105
Procedures for implementing methods to improve the nutritional quality of milk products     111
Future trends and priority areas for research and development     111
References     112
Effects of organic husbandry methods and feeding regimes on poultry quality   H. Hirt   E. Zeltner   C. Leifert     117
Introduction     117
Sensory and nutritional quality     118
Animal welfare related quality parameters     123
Poultry health management and risk from foodborne diseases     133
Veterinary medicine use and residues     136
Toxic chemicals and heavy metals     136
Maintaining quality during processing     137
Alternative assessment systems for organic food quality     138
Acknowledgements     138
Sources of further information and advice     139
References     139
Quality in organic, low-input and conventional pig production   A. Sundrum     144
Introduction     144
Perception of quality     144
Framework conditions of pig production     147
Consumer perception      151
Product quality     153
Animal welfare issues     161
Environmental impact     162
Constraints and potentials for quality production     163
Conclusion     167
References     169
Organic livestock husbandry methods and the microbiological safety of ruminant production systems   F. Diez-Gonzalez     178
Introduction     178
Effect of forage to concentrate ratios on enteric pathogen prevalence and shedding     180
Effect of livestock breed and husbandry (including veterinary antibiotic treatments) on the incidence of pathogens and antibiotic-resistant bacteria     187
Effect of stress on enteric pathogen shedding     189
Reducing enteric pathogen transfer risks in organic and 'low input' systems: outline of strategies     191
Future trends     193
Sources of further information and advice     194
References     195
Reducing antibiotic use for mastitis treatment in organic dairy production systems   P. Klocke   M. Walkenhorst   G. Butler     199
Introduction     199
Causes and epidemiology of mastitis     200
Symptoms of mastitis     201
Mastitis management and treatment      202
Husbandry and environmental improvement     212
Breeding strategies     212
Integration of management and treatment approaches: farm specific mastitis management plans     213
Acknowledgement     215
References     216
Reducing anthelmintic use for the control of internal parasites in organic livestock systems   V. Maurer   P. Hordegen   H. Hertzberg     221
Introduction     221
Ruminants     222
Non-ruminants     231
Future trends     234
References     235
Alternative therapies to reduce enteric bacterial infections and improve the microbiological safety of pig and poultry production systems   B. Biavati   C. Santini   C. Leifert     241
Introduction     241
Anatomy and physiology of digestive tracts of monogastric livestock     242
Intestinal bacteria and their potential as probiotics     245
Probiotics for farm animals     247
Prebiotics for farm animals     252
Synbiotics     252
Acid activated antimicrobials (AAA)     254
Conclusion     256
References     257
Organic crop foods
Dietary exposure to pesticides from organic and conventional food production systems   C. Benbrook     265
Introduction     265
Dietary exposure data sources     267
Organic food and pesticide residues     271
Reducing exposure to the OP insecticides     279
Need to reduce exposures further     290
Endnote     293
References     294
Levels and potential health impacts of nutritionally relevant phytochemicals in organic and conventional food production systems   E. A. S. Rosa   R. N. Bennett   A. Aires     297
Introduction     297
Plants as sources of phytochemicals     300
Assessment and bioavailability of phytochemicals     313
Potential positive and negative effects of phytochemicals on livestock and human health     314
Impact of phytochemicals on crop resistance to pests and diseases     314
Factors that modulate differences in phytochemical levels and other major constituents between organic and conventional farming     317
Gaps in knowledge - future research evaluations     322
References     322
Improving the quality and shelf life of fruit from organic production systems   F. P. Weibel   T. Alfoldi     330
Introduction      330
Reasons for varying fruit quality: interactions between site conditions and management factors     331
Comparison of quality parameters between organic and conventional fruit     342
Conclusions and future challenges     346
Acknowledgement     348
References     348
Strategies to reduce mycotoxin and fungal alkaloid contamination in organic and conventional cereal production systems   U. Kopke   B. Thiel   S. Elmholt     353
Introduction     353
Mycotoxin- and alkaloid-producing fungi     354
Problems associated with dietary mycotoxins/alkaloid intake in livestock and humans     358
Mycotoxin regulation and monitoring     360
Factors affecting mycotoxin/alkaloid contamination of cereal grains     361
Agronomic strategies to reduce mycotoxin grain infection and mycotoxin levels     364
Effect of harvest conditions and post-harvest handling on mycotoxin contamination levels     375
Do organic and 'low input' systems present a particular risk for mycotoxin contamination?     378
Conclusions     379
Acknowledgements     381
Sources of further information and advice     381
References     381
Reducing copper-based fungicide use in organic crop production systems   R. Ghorbani   S. Wilcockson     392
Introduction     392
Effects of diseases on crop yield and quality in organic systems     393
Crop protection with copper-based fungicides in organic production systems     394
Crop protection without copper-based fungicides     398
Future trends     407
Conclusions     407
Sources of further information and advice     408
References     408
Pre-harvest strategies to ensure the microbiological safety of fruit and vegetables from manure-based production systems   U. Kopke   J. Kramer   C. Leifert     413
Introduction     413
Use of manure in organic, 'low input' and conventional farming     415
Risk of transfer of enteric pathogens from manure to fruit and vegetable crops     416
Agronomic strategies to minimise pathogen transfer risk     417
Strategies for reducing pathogen loads in manure through manure processing     419
Strategies used to reduce enteric pathogen contamination of crops via irrigation water     420
Strategies to reduce risk of pathogen transfer from animal grazing phases prior to planting of crops     422
Other sources of enteric pathogen contamination      423
Strategies used to reduce enteric pathogen contamination of crops via wild animal vectors     423
HACCP-based systems for integrated control of pathogen transfer into organic food supply chains     424
References     425
The organic food chain: processing, trading and quality assurance
Post-harvest strategies to reduce enteric bacteria contamination of vegetable, nut and fruit products   G. S. Johannessen     433
Introduction     433
Processing strategies used     434
Differences in organic and conventional processing standards     435
Disadvantages of chlorine sanitation methods     436
Methods used to study the efficacy of disinfection methods     437
Alternative strategies to the use of chlorine for disinfection     438
Integration of strategies to minimize pathogen transfer risk during processing into organic and 'low input' standard systems     447
Conclusions     448
Sources of further information and advice     448
References     449
Fair trade: a basis for adequate producers' incomes, farm reinvestment and quality and safety focused production   M. Bourlakis   C. Vizard     454
Introduction     454
Organic market     454
Ethical (fair) trade      456
View of stakeholders and key supply chain members     459
Conclusions     464
References     464
Development of quality assurance protocols to prevent GM-contamination of organic crops   R. C. Van Acker   N. McLean   R. C. Martin     466
Introduction     466
Terminology     467
Examples of transgene escape     471
Implications of transgene escape     472
Mechanisms of transgene escape     474
Managing coexistence     477
Coexistence legislation     482
GM-free regions     483
Future research needs     484
Conclusion     484
Sources of further information and advice     485
References     485
Integration of quality parameters into food safety focused HACCP systems   K. Brandt   L. Luck   U. Kjaernes   G. S. Wyss   A. Hartvig Larsen     490
Introduction     490
Need to integrate and focus control systems for quality and safety     491
Hazard analysis by critical control points     491
Introducing the Organic HACCP project     493
Benefits and drawbacks of using CCP-based systems at the level of a supply chain     494
Concerns about social and ethical values among consumers of organic food     496
Providing assurance that consumer concerns are met     497
How identification of quality-focused CCPs in organic food production chains was carried out in the Organic HACCP project     500
Examples of identified CCPs     502
Organisational and educational requirements for utilising this concept in real supply chains     504
Example of successful integration of the HACCP concept in a vegetable supply chain to control product quality as well as safety     505
Future research and development needs and trends     507
Sources of further information and advice     508
References     508
Index     510

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