Handbook of Pollution Prevention and Cleaner Production Vol. 3: Best Practices in the Agrochemical Industry

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The Handbook of Cleaner Production comprises a series of reference guides to cleaner production methods, technologies, and practices for key industry sectors.

Each volume covers, for each industry sector:
• manufacturing technologies
• waste management
• pollution control and remediation
• methods for estimating and reporting emissions
• treatment and control technologies
• health risk exposures for workers and the wider community
• cost data for pollution management
• cleaner production and prevention options

• safe chemical handling practices Best Practices in the Agrochemical Industry includes coverage of pollution of drinking water (atrazine, trichloropropane and DBCP and the risks associated with them, such as miscarriages and infertility), pesticide residues in food, a case study of worker pesticide exposure and cancer, contaminants in organic food, etc.

Extensive data is provided regarding regulatory limits for exposure to pesticides according to EPA, NIOSH, OSHA, WHO and ACGIH.

• Coverage of agrochemical residues and their health impacts, and mitigation strategies

• Includes extensive data tables covering USA and international regulatory requirements (EPA, NIOSH, OSHA, WHO and ACGIH)

• Details safer manufacturing processes and procedures to limit pollution

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781437778250
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 12/21/2010
  • Pages: 320
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff, Ph.D. (Ch.E.) is Director of Clean Technologies and Pollution Prevention Projects at PERI (Princeton Energy Resources International, LLC, Rockville, MD). He has led hundreds of pollution prevention audits and demonstrations; training programs on modern process design practices and plant safety; environmental management and product quality programs; and site assessments and remediation plans for both public and private sector clients throughout the world. He frequently serves as expert witness on personal injury and third-party property damage litigations arising from environmental catastrophes. Dr. Cheremisinoff has contributed extensively to the literature of environmental and chemical engineering as author, co-author, or editor of 150 technical reference books, including Butterworth-Heinemann’s Handbook of Chemical Processing Equipment, and Green Profits.
He holds advanced degrees in chemical engineering from Clarkson College of Technology."

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Table of Contents

1 Industry and Products 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Fertilizers 2

1.3 Pesticides and Other Agricultural Chemicals 4

1.4 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 10

1.5 Manufacturing Technologies 10

2 Pollution and Pollution Prevention 25

2.1 Sources of Pollution 25

2.2 Case Study 25

2.3 Environmental Aspects 53

2.4 Recommended Pollution Prevention and Control Options 56

2.5 Source Reduction Opportunities 59

2.6 Water Management and Technical Challenges 60

2.7 Steam Losses and Sensible Heat Recovery 62

2.8 Pollution Prevention Opportunities 68

3 Toxic and Dangerous Properties 81

4 Atrazine 215

4.1 Introduction 215

4.2 Regulations 215

4.3 How Atrazine Works 216

4.4 Breakdown Products 218

4.5 Water Contamination Issues 219

4.6 Syngenta Atrazine Monitoring Program (AMP) 220

4.7 Health Effects 225

4.8 Atrazine Exposure Case Studies 226

4.9 Atrazine Removal Technologies 228

4.10 Alternatives to Atrazine 229

5 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) 233

5.1 Introduction 233

5.2 Toxicology and Health Risks 234

5.3 Regulations and Standards 236

5.4 The TCP-DCP Fumigant Link 237

5.5 Groundwater Contamination Case Studies 239

5.6 Another Toxic Soil Fumigant: Dibromochloropropane 239

5.7 Treatment and Remediation Technologies 242

6 DDT and Related Compounds 247

6.1 Introduction 247

6.2 History of DDT: Production and Uses 247

6.3 Distribution, Transport, and Environmental Fate 250

6.4 Impact on Wildlife 252

6.5 Health Effects 253

6.6 Current Use, Malaria Controversy, and Alternatives 255

7 Agent Orange 261

7.1 Introduction 261

7.2 Chemical Composition 261

7.3 Uses in the Vietnam War 262

7.4 Health Effects 264

7.5 Government Response 265

7.6 Litigation 266

7.7 Other Uses 267

8 Pesticide Residue in Foods 269

8.1 Federal Monitoring and Surveillance of Residue Contamination 269

8.2 Modification of Pesticides During Post-Harvest 272

8.3 The Food Quality Protection Act (US EPA, 2008) 272

8.4 Organic Foods 273

8.5 The 'Dirty Dozen' 274

8.6 Measuring Residual Levels (Nasreddine et al., 2002) 275

8.7 Acute Exposures and Contamination Variability 276

9 EPA Screening Levels and Pesticide Status 281

Index 307

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