Handbook of Semiconductor Interconnection Technology / Edition 2

Handbook of Semiconductor Interconnection Technology / Edition 2

by Geraldine C. Schwartz, Arthur Bross
     
 

ISBN-10: 1574446746

ISBN-13: 9781574446746

Pub. Date: 02/28/2006

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

First introduced about a decade ago, the first edition of the Handbook of Semiconductor Interconnection Technology became widely popular for its thorough, integrated treatment of interconnect technologies and its forward-looking perspective. The field has grown tremendously in the interim and many of the "likely directions" outlined in the first edition are

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Overview

First introduced about a decade ago, the first edition of the Handbook of Semiconductor Interconnection Technology became widely popular for its thorough, integrated treatment of interconnect technologies and its forward-looking perspective. The field has grown tremendously in the interim and many of the "likely directions" outlined in the first edition are now standard in modern facilities. Reflecting those advances, this edition delves into the practical aspects of interconnections for manufacturing. It examines the interconnect and fabrication technologies now available, with an examination of future prospects for the field.

What's in this Edition:

  • Detailed discussion of electrochemical equipment for plating copper
  • Information on tools used for evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, and plasma processes
  • Emphasis on measurement of mechanical and thermal properties of insulators
  • Methods for characterizing porous dielectric thin films
  • Greater focus on integration issues and properties of titanium, cobalt, and nickel silicides
  • Process schemes based on the increased need for borderless contact gates and source/drain
  • Expanded discussion on choices for low-dielectric insulators
  • Concentration on electroplated copper, especially morphology of plated films and their properties
  • Developments in thin film liners and barriers
  • Expanded material on copper reliability
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    Product Details

    ISBN-13:
    9781574446746
    Publisher:
    Taylor & Francis
    Publication date:
    02/28/2006
    Edition description:
    REV
    Pages:
    536
    Product dimensions:
    6.90(w) x 10.10(h) x 1.20(d)

    Table of Contents

    METHODS/PRINCIPLES OF DEPOSITION AND ETCHING OF THIN FILMS; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz
    Introduction
    Evaporation
    Chemical Vapor Deposition
    Photoenhanced CVD
    Plasma Processing
    Electrochemical Deposition
    Spin Coating
    Conclusion
    References
    CHARACTERIZATION; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz
    Introduction
    Optical Characterization of Dielectric Films
    Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy
    Resistivity of Metal Films
    Thickness
    Dielectric Constant of Dielectrics
    Breakdown Strength
    Adhesion
    Mechanical Properties
    Thermal Properties
    Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
    X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS): Also Called Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA)
    Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS)
    Electron Microprobe
    X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRFS)
    Hydrogen Analysis
    Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS)
    Specular X-Ray Reflectivity (SXR)
    Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS)
    Positronium Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS)
    Ellipsometric Porosimetry (EP)
    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
    Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
    Focused Ion Beam (FIB)
    Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)
    Thermal Wave-Modulated Optical Reflectance Imaging (TW)
    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
    Wet Chemical Methods
    Chromatography
    Other Analytical Techniques
    Thermometry
    Electrochemical Methods
    Plasma Diagnostics
    References
    SEMICONDUCTOR CONTACT TECHNOLOGY; David R. Campbell, Revised by Catherine Ivers
    Introduction
    Importance of Contact Technology
    Electrical Aspects of Silicon Contacts
    Material Aspects
    Ohmic Contacts
    Active Device Contacts
    Contact Studs for ULSI
    Conclusions
    References
    INTERLEVEL DIELECTRICS; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz and K.V. Srikrishnan
    Introduction
    Inorganic Dielectric Films
    Spin-On Glasses (SOGs)
    Low Dielectric Constant Films
    Barrier Dielectric Film: a-SiC:H
    Porous Dielectric Films
    Plasma-Assisted Etching of Organic Films
    Reactive Ion Etching of Low-e Interlevel Dielectric Films
    Conclusions
    References
    METALLIZATION; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz and K.V. Srikrishnan
    Introduction
    Aluminum
    Aluminum Alloys
    Copper
    Tungsten
    Patterning of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
    Patterning of Copper
    Patterning of Tungsten
    Structure of Metal Films
    Chapter Summary
    References
    CHIP INTEGRATION; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz and K.V. Srikrishnan
    Introduction
    Topography, Step Coverage, and Planarization
    Spin-On Films
    Step Coverage by Deposited Films
    In Situ Planarization/Gap-Fill of Dielectric Films
    Etch-Back Processes
    Step Coverage, Hole-Fill Planarization of Metals
    Evaporation
    Sputter Deposition of Metals
    Directional Sputtering
    High-Density Plasmas
    Beam Techniques
    Flowage of Metal Films
    CVD Metals
    Electrochemical Deposition of Copper
    Embedment (Inlaid) Processes
    Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP)
    CMP of Inorganic Dielectric Films
    CMP of Low-e Films
    CMP of Metals
    Post-CMP Cleaning
    Problems with CMP
    Impact of CMP
    Conclusions on Topography
    Remaining Issues for Chip Integration
    Process/Structure Choice Conflicts
    Processes
    Reliability
    Manufacturability
    Wafer Size
    Concluding Remarks on Compatibility of Materials and Processing
    References
    RELIABILITY; James R. Lloyd and Kenneth P. Rodbell
    Introduction
    Thin-Film Interconnect Reliability
    Behavior of Thin-Film Conductors in Stress Voiding and Electromigration Testing
    Electromigration Behavior of Via Chains
    Corrosion
    Insulator Reliability
    Concluding Remarks
    References
    INDEX

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