Handbook of Semiconductor Interconnection Technology / Edition 2

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More About This Textbook

Overview

First introduced about a decade ago, the first edition of the Handbook of Semiconductor Interconnection Technology became widely popular for its thorough, integrated treatment of interconnect technologies and its forward-looking perspective. The field has grown tremendously in the interim and many of the "likely directions" outlined in the first edition are now standard in modern facilities. Reflecting those advances, this edition delves into the practical aspects of interconnections for manufacturing. It examines the interconnect and fabrication technologies now available, with an examination of future prospects for the field.

What's in this Edition:

  • Detailed discussion of electrochemical equipment for plating copper
  • Information on tools used for evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, and plasma processes
  • Emphasis on measurement of mechanical and thermal properties of insulators
  • Methods for characterizing porous dielectric thin films
  • Greater focus on integration issues and properties of titanium, cobalt, and nickel silicides
  • Process schemes based on the increased need for borderless contact gates and source/drain
  • Expanded discussion on choices for low-dielectric insulators
  • Concentration on electroplated copper, especially morphology of plated films and their properties
  • Developments in thin film liners and barriers
  • Expanded material on copper reliability
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781574446746
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • Publication date: 2/28/2006
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 536
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 10.10 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Table of Contents

METHODS/PRINCIPLES OF DEPOSITION AND ETCHING OF THIN FILMS; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz
Introduction
Evaporation
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Photoenhanced CVD
Plasma Processing
Electrochemical Deposition
Spin Coating
Conclusion
References
CHARACTERIZATION; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz
Introduction
Optical Characterization of Dielectric Films
Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy
Resistivity of Metal Films
Thickness
Dielectric Constant of Dielectrics
Breakdown Strength
Adhesion
Mechanical Properties
Thermal Properties
Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS): Also Called Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA)
Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS)
Electron Microprobe
X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRFS)
Hydrogen Analysis
Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS)
Specular X-Ray Reflectivity (SXR)
Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS)
Positronium Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS)
Ellipsometric Porosimetry (EP)
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
Focused Ion Beam (FIB)
Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)
Thermal Wave-Modulated Optical Reflectance Imaging (TW)
X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
Wet Chemical Methods
Chromatography
Other Analytical Techniques
Thermometry
Electrochemical Methods
Plasma Diagnostics
References
SEMICONDUCTOR CONTACT TECHNOLOGY; David R. Campbell, Revised by Catherine Ivers
Introduction
Importance of Contact Technology
Electrical Aspects of Silicon Contacts
Material Aspects
Ohmic Contacts
Active Device Contacts
Contact Studs for ULSI
Conclusions
References
INTERLEVEL DIELECTRICS; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz and K.V. Srikrishnan
Introduction
Inorganic Dielectric Films
Spin-On Glasses (SOGs)
Low Dielectric Constant Films
Barrier Dielectric Film: a-SiC:H
Porous Dielectric Films
Plasma-Assisted Etching of Organic Films
Reactive Ion Etching of Low-e Interlevel Dielectric Films
Conclusions
References
METALLIZATION; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz and K.V. Srikrishnan
Introduction
Aluminum
Aluminum Alloys
Copper
Tungsten
Patterning of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
Patterning of Copper
Patterning of Tungsten
Structure of Metal Films
Chapter Summary
References
CHIP INTEGRATION; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz and K.V. Srikrishnan
Introduction
Topography, Step Coverage, and Planarization
Spin-On Films
Step Coverage by Deposited Films
In Situ Planarization/Gap-Fill of Dielectric Films
Etch-Back Processes
Step Coverage, Hole-Fill Planarization of Metals
Evaporation
Sputter Deposition of Metals
Directional Sputtering
High-Density Plasmas
Beam Techniques
Flowage of Metal Films
CVD Metals
Electrochemical Deposition of Copper
Embedment (Inlaid) Processes
Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP)
CMP of Inorganic Dielectric Films
CMP of Low-e Films
CMP of Metals
Post-CMP Cleaning
Problems with CMP
Impact of CMP
Conclusions on Topography
Remaining Issues for Chip Integration
Process/Structure Choice Conflicts
Processes
Reliability
Manufacturability
Wafer Size
Concluding Remarks on Compatibility of Materials and Processing
References
RELIABILITY; James R. Lloyd and Kenneth P. Rodbell
Introduction
Thin-Film Interconnect Reliability
Behavior of Thin-Film Conductors in Stress Voiding and Electromigration Testing
Electromigration Behavior of Via Chains
Corrosion
Insulator Reliability
Concluding Remarks
References
INDEX

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