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Handbook of Systems Engineering and Management / Edition 2

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Overview

The trusted handbook—now in a new edition

This newly revised handbook presents a multifaceted view of systems engineering from process and systems management perspectives. It begins with a comprehensive introduction to the subject and provides a brief overview of the thirty-four chapters that follow. This introductory chapter is intended to serve as a "field guide" that indicates why, when, and how to use the material that follows in the handbook.

Topical coverage includes: systems engineering life cycles and management; risk management; discovering system requirements; configuration management; cost management; total quality management; reliability, maintainability, and availability; concurrent engineering; standards in systems engineering; system architectures; systems design; systems integration; systematic measurements; human supervisory control; managing organizational and individual decision-making; systems reengineering; project planning; human systems integration; information technology and knowledge management; and more.

The handbook is written and edited for systems engineers in industry and government, and to serve as a university reference handbook in systems engineering and management courses. By focusing on systems engineering processes and systems management, the editors have produced a long-lasting handbook that will make a difference in the design of systems of all types that are large in scale and/or scope.

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Editorial Reviews

E-Streams
This title would be especially useful for special libraries, and it would be relevant for academic libraries that support strong engineering programs.
E-Streams
This title would be especially useful for special libraries, and it would be relevant for academic libraries that support strong engineering programs.
Booknews
This handbook takes a multifaceted view and describes systems engineering in terms of a relatively large number of dimensions. It discusses methods and tools<-->as well as a variety of specific products<-->from an engineering perspective, with a focus upon systems that are information-technology and knowledge intensive. Covering includes traditional systems analysis, theory, and operations research concerns in the broader context of engineering and management processes. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
From the Publisher
"This title would be especially useful for special libraries, and it would be relevant for academic libraries that support strong engineering programs." (E-Streams, Vol. 3, no. 1, January 2000)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470083536
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 4/27/2009
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 1504
  • Sales rank: 892,951
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 2.30 (d)

Meet the Author

Andrew P. Sage, PhD, became the First American Bank Professor of Information Technology and Engineering at George Mason University and the first Dean of the School of Information Technology and Engineering. Dr. Sage is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, as well as a Fellow of the IEEE, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and INCOSE. He is the Editor of the Wiley Series in Systems Engineering and Management and of Wiley's Journal of Systems Engineering.

William B. Rouse, PhD, is a professor in the School of Industrial and Systems Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology and holds a joint appointment within the College of Computing. He also serves as Executive Director of the Tennenbaum Institute, a campus-wide research center focused on complex organizational systems. Dr. Rouse is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, as well as a Fellow of the IEEE, the International Council on Systems Engineering, the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences, and the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

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Table of Contents

Preface xvii

Contributors xxi

An Introduction to Systems Engineering and Systems Management 1
Andrew P. Sage and William B. Rouse

Systems Engineering 2

Importance of Technical Direction and Systems Management 6

Additional Definitions of Systems Engineering 9

Life-Cycle Methodologies, or Processes, for Systems Engineering 23

The Rest of the Handbook of Systems Engineering and Management 31

Knowledge Map of the Systems Engineering and Management Handbook 50

The Many Dimensions of Systems Engineering 55

People, Organizations, Technology, and Architectures and System Families 56

References 62

1 Systems Engineering Life Cycles: Life Cycles for Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation; Acquisition; and Planning and Marketing 65
F. G. Patterson, Jr.

1.1 Introduction 65

1.2 Classification of Organizational Processes 69

1.3 Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation Life Cycles 72

1.4 System Acquisition or Production Life Cycles 76

1.5 The Planning and Marketing Life Cycle 86

1.6 Software Acquisition life-Cycle Models 88

1.7 Trends in Systems Engineering Life Cycles 96

1.8 Conclusion 108

2 Systems Engineering Management: The Multidisciplinary Discipline 117
Aaron J. Shenhar and Brian Sauser

2.1 Introduction 117

2.2 Defining Systems Engineering Management 118

2.3 Activities and Roles of the Systems Engineering Manager 120

2.4 Toward a Comprehensive Framework for the Implementation of Systems Engineering Management: The Four-Dimensional "Diamond Taxonomy"—NTCP 123

2.5 Different Systems Engineering Management Roles for Various Project Types 131

2.6 The Skills, Tools, and Disciplines Involved in Systems Engineering Management 145

2.7 Developing Educational and Training Programs in Systems Engineering Management 147

2.8 Conclusion 150

3 Risk Management 155
Yacov Y. Haimes

3.1 The Process of Risk Assessment and Management 155

3.2 The Holistic Approach to Risk Analysis 157

3.3 Risk of Extreme Events 167

3.4 The Partitioned Multiobjective Risk Method 171

3.5 The Characteristics of Risk in Human-Engineered Systems 180

3.6 Selected Cases of Risk-Based Engineering Problems 181

3.7 Conclusion 200

4 Discovering System Requirements 205
A. Terry Bahill and Frank F. Dean

4.1 Introduction 205

4.2 Stating The Problem 205

4.3 What Are Requirements? 209

4.4 Qualities of a Good Requirement 210

4.5 Characterization of Requirements 216

4.6 The Requirements Development and Management Process 227

4.7 Fitting the Requirements Process into the Systems Engineering Process 243

4.8 Related Items 245

4.9 Requirements Volatility 247

4.10 Inspections 248

4.11 A Heuristic Example of Requirements 249

4.12 The Hybrid Process for Capturing Requirements 250

4.13 Conclusion 264

5 Configuration Management 267
Peggy S. Brouse

5.1 Introduction 267

5.2 Configuration Management within the System Life Cycle 271

5.3 Configuration Status Accounting and Configuration Auditing 281

5.4 Configuration Management Responsibilities 283

5.5 Configuration Management in Process Improvement 283

5.6 Configuration Management Tools 286

5.7 Conclusion 289

6 Cost Management 291
Benjamin S. Blanchard

6.1 Introduction 291

6.2 Life-Cycle Costing 291

6.3 Functional Economic Analysis 298

6.4 Work Breakdown Structure 301

6.5 Activity-Based Costing 306

6.6 Cost and Effectiveness Analysis 310

6.7 System Evaluation and Cost Control 320

6.8 Conclusion 321

7 Total Quality Management 325
James L. Melsa

7.1 Introduction 325

7.2 Historical Background of the Quality Movement 328

7.3 Total Quality Management Tools 330

7.4 Total Quality Management Philosophies 332

7.5 Conclusion 349

8 Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability 361
Michael Pecht

8.1 Introduction and Motivation 361

8.2 Evolution of RMA Engineering 362

8.3 Allocation 363

8.4 Design for Reliability 363

8.5 System Reliability Assessment Modeling 385

8.6 Fault Trees 390

8.7 Design for Maintainability 390

8.8 Data Collection, Classification, and Reporting 392

8.9 Warranties and Life-Cycle Costs 393

8.10 Operational Readiness and Availability 393

9 Concurrent Engineering 397
Andrew Kusiak and Nick Larson

9.1 Introduction 397

9.2 Concurrent Engineering and the Product Life Cycle 398

9.3 Building a Concurrent Engineering Environment: A Systems Engineering Perspective 399

9.4 Managing a Concurrent Engineering Environment: Tools and Techniques 425

9.5 Implementation 433

9.6 Concurrnt Engineering in the Future 434

9.7 Conclusion 435

10 Engineering the Enterprise as a System 441
William B. Rouse

10.1 Introduction 441

10.2 Essential Challenges 442

10.3 Enterprise Transformation 445

10.4 Enterprises as Systems 451

10.5 Transformation Framework 454

10.6 Implications for Systems Engineering and Management 457

10.7 Conclusion 458

11 Standards in Systems Engineering 463
Stephen C. Lowell

11.1 Introduction 463

11.2 Definition 463

11.3 Historical Highlights of Standards in the United States 463

11.4 Reasons for Using Specifications and Standards 465

11.5 Proper Application of Specifications and Standards 467

11.6 Selection and Development of Specifications and Standards 468

11.7 Useful Standards in the Systems Engineering Process 477

11.8 Locating and Obtaining Specifications and Standards 477

12 System Architectures 479
Alexander H. Levis

12.1 Introduction 479

12.2 Definition of Architectures 481

12.3 Structured Analysis Approach 483

12.4 The Executable Model 491

12.5 Physical Architecture 493

12.6 Performance Evaluation 495

12.7 Object-Oriented Approach 496

12.8 Architecture Evaluation 501

12.9 The DoD Architecture Framework 503

12.10 Conclusion 504

13 Systems Design 507
K. Preston White, Jr.

13.1 Introduction 507

13.2 What is Systems Design? 508

13.3 Steps in the Design process 508

13.4 Design Tools 517

13.5 A Brief History of Recent Design Theory 519

13.6 Design and Concurrent Engineering 521

14 Systems Integration 535
James D. Palmer

14.1 Introduction 535

14.2 Systems Integration in Large, Complex Engineered Systems and a Systems Integration Life Cycle 538

14.3 Systems Integration Management and Technical Skills and Training Requirements 542

14.4 Systems Integration Strategy for Success 545

14.5 The Audit Trail 552

14.6 Quality Assurance in Systems Integration 555

14.7 Subcontractor Management for Systems Integration 559

14.8 Subsystem Integration and Delivery 561

14.9 Risk Management 564

14.10 The Lead Systems Integrator 568

15 Systematic Measurements 575
Andrew P. Sage

15.1 Introduction 575

15.2 Organizational Needs for Systematic Measurement 577

15.3 Measurement Needs 578

15.4 Organizational Measurements 587

15.5 Metrics from Widely Accepted Standards, Awards, and Government Requirements 590

15.6 Selected Measurement Approaches 609

15.7 Systematic Measurements of Customer Satisfaction 617

15.8 Systematic Measurements of Effort, Cost, and Schedule 625

15.9 Systematic Measurements of Defects 625

15.10 Metrics Process Maturity 626

15.11 Information Technology and Organizational Performance Measurement 631

15.12 Conclusion 639

16 Human Supervisory Control 645
Thomas B. Sheridan

16.1 Introduction 645

16.2 Task Analysis and Function Allocation 648

16.3 The Phases of Supervisory Control 652

16.4 Examples of Supervisory Control Applications and Problems 662

16.5 Adaptive Automation 674

16.6 Overview Considerations of Supervisory Control 676

16.7 Conclusion 685

17 Designing for Cognitive Task Performance 691
Judith M. Orasanu and Michael G. Shafto

17.1 Introduction 691

17.2 Cognitive Constraints on System Design 693

17.3 Reduction to Practice 705

17.4 Conclusion 715

18 Modeling Organizational and Individual Decision Making 723
Kathleen M. Carley and Terrill L. Frantz

18.1 Introduction 723

18.2 Computational Organization Theory 726

18.3 Modeling the Individual 730

18.4 Modeling the Organization 741

18.5 Computational Tools 745

18.6 Implications for Systems Engineering and Management 747

18.7 Conclusion 748

19 Organizational Simulation 763
William B. Rouse and Douglas A. Bodner

19.1 Introduction 763

19.2 Scope of Organizational Simulation 764

19.3 State of the Art 766

19.4 Case Studies 768

19.5 Conclusion 790

20 Organizational Change: The Role of Culture and Leadership 793
Charles S. Harris, Betty K. Hart, and Joyce Shields

20.1 Introduction 793

20.2 Setting the Context: Culture 795

20.3 The Role of Leadership 800

20.4 Applying the Change Model 804

20.5 Profiles in Change 824

20.6 Conclusion 831

21 Model-Based Design of Human Interaction with Complex Systems 837
Christine M. Mitchell and David W. Roberts

21.1 Introduction 837

21.2 Human Interaction with Complex Systems: The Systems, Tasks, and Users 837

21.3 Emerging Technology and Design 838

21.4 Human–System Interaction Issues 840

21.5 Model-Based Design: Operator 847

21.6 Model-Based Design Using the Operator Function Model 860

21.7 Ofm-Based Design: Illustrative Applications 875

21.8 Team-OFM 889

21.9 Basic Research and Operational Relevance to Real-World Design 894

21.10 Conclusion 899

22 Evaluation of Systems 909
James M. Tien

22.1 Introduction 909

22.2 Evaluation Field 910

22.3 Evaluation Framework 911

22.4 Evaluation Design Elements 914

22.5 Evaluation Modeling 918

22.6 Conclusion 920

23 Systems Reengineering 923
Andrew P. Sage

23.1 Introduction 923

23.2 Definition of and Perspectives on Reengineering 925

23.3 Overview of Reengineering Approaches 931

23.4 Conclusion 1013

24 Issue Formulation 1027
James E. Armstrong, Jr.

24.1 Introduction: Problem and Issue Formulation 1027

24.2 Situation Assessment 1027

24.3 Problem or Issue Identification 1032

24.4 Value System Design 1043

24.5 Iteration of The Design 1053

24.6 Generation of Potential Alternatives or System Synthesis 1070

24.7 Alternatives and Feasibility Studies 1082

24.8 Conclusion 1085

25 Functional Analysis 1091
Dennis M. Buede

25.1 Introduction 1091

25.2 Elements of Functional Analysis 1091

25.3 Functional Decomposition 1092

25.4 The Systems Engineering Requirements Statement and Functional Analysis 1096

25.5 Diagrams and Software for Functional Analysis 1109

25.6 Conclusion 1125

26 Methods for the Modeling and Analysis of Alternatives 1127
C. Els Van Daalen, Wil A. H. Thissen, Alexander Verbraeck, and Pieter W. G. Bots

26.1 Introduction 1127

26.2 Quantitative Models and Methods 1128

26.3 Physical System Models 1134

26.4 System Dynamics 1141

26.5 Discrete-Event Simulation Models 1145

26.6 Agent-Based Models 1150

26.7 Economic Models of Costs and Benefits 1155

26.8 Evaluation and Discussion 1161

27 Operations Research and Refinement of Courses of Action 1171
Keith W. Hipel, D. Marc Kilgour, Siamak Rajabi, and Ye Chen

27.1 Introduction 1171

27.2 Operations Research 1171

27.3 Operations Research and Systems Engineering 1176

27.4 Operations Research Methods 1178

27.5 Generating and Screening Actions 1189

27.6 Multiple-Criteria Decision Making 1192

27.7 Multiple-Participant Decision Making 1202

27.8 Heuristic Programming 1210

27.9 Conclusions 1214

28 Decision Analysis 1223
Craig W. Kirkwood

28.1 Introduction 1223

28.2 Structuring Objectives 1223

28.3 Developing Alternatives 1228

28.4 Value Analysis 1232

28.5 Decisions With Uncertainty 1238

28.6 Multiple Objectives and Uncertainty 1245

28.7 Decision Analysis Software 1246

28.8 Conclusion 1247

29 Project Planning: Planning for Action 1251
Ruth Buys

29.1 Introduction 1251

29.2 Network-Based Systems Planning and Project Management 1253

29.3 Pricing and Estimating 1256

29.4 Risk and Cost Control 1260

29.5 Maintenance and Support 1267

29.6 Software for Planning Support 1269

29.7 Presentation and Communication of Results of Systems Planning 1272

29.8 Project Planning Pitfalls 1275

29.9 Conclusion 1279

30 Complex Adaptive Systems in Systems Engineering and Management 1283
Sarah Sheard

30.1 Introduction 1283

30.2 Order: Newtonian and Mechanical Systems 1286

30.3 History and Principles of Chaos 1289

30.4 Between Order and Chaos 1291

30.5 Complexity and Complex Systems 1292

30.6 Complex Adaptive Systems 1294

30.7 Small Worlds, Scale-Free Networks, Power Laws, and Evolving Fitness Landscapes 1297

30.8 Principles of Complex Systems for Systems Engineering 1303

30.9 Principles for Management of Complex Adaptive Systems Engineering Efforts 1309

30.10 Conclusion 1315

31 Human Systems Integration 1319
Harold R. Booher, Robert J. Beaton, and Frances Greene

31.1 Introduction 1319

31.2 HSI Concept 1320

31.3 HSI Assessment Principles and Factors 1326

31.4 HSI Business Case 1332

31.5 HSI Process in Systems Engineering 1339

31.6 Conclusion 1355

32 Model-Based Systems Engineering 1361
David W. Oliver, James F. Andary, and Harold Frisch

32.1 Introduction 1361

32.2 A Selected History of The Modeling of Systems 1364

32.3 A Semantic Glossary and Model for Systems Engineering Concepts 1370

32.4 Product Data Management 1393

32.5 Ontologies 1396

32.6 Conclusion 1398

33 Using the Design Structure Matrix to Design Program Organizations 1401
Tyson R. Browning

33.1 Introduction 1401

33.2 A Framework for Organizational Integration 1403

33.3 Organizational Integration Analysis with the Design Structure Matrix 1405

33.4 A Systematic Approach to Designing Programs for organizational Integration 1413

33.5 Implementation barriers 1420

33.6 Conclusion 1420

34 Information Technology and Knowledge Management 1425
William B. Rouse and Andrew P. Sage

34.1 Introduction 1425

34.2 Trends 1428

34.3 Scenarios 1433

34.4 Eleven Challenges 1437

34.5 Ecological Approaches to the Challenges 1450

34.6 Conclusion 1457

References 1457

Index 1463

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