Handbook of Veterinary Clinical Research / Edition 1

Handbook of Veterinary Clinical Research / Edition 1

by Mark Holmes, Peter Cockcroft
     
 

ISBN-10: 140514551X

ISBN-13: 9781405145510

Pub. Date: 01/03/2008

Publisher: Wiley

The first accessible information on how to carry out veterinary clinical research. This book is an aid to increasing the quantity and quality of such research within veterinary clinical practice. Covering all the core research methods as well as aspects specific to veterinary medicine. Clinical research aims to optimize decision making in practice by answering

Overview

The first accessible information on how to carry out veterinary clinical research. This book is an aid to increasing the quantity and quality of such research within veterinary clinical practice. Covering all the core research methods as well as aspects specific to veterinary medicine. Clinical research aims to optimize decision making in practice by answering questions on the best diagnostic options and treatments. Reading this book will help you take the intellectually rewarding step towards improving prognoses and outcomes through informed decisions. Special attention is given to ethical and legal issues, how to maximise the power of studies when faced with small numbers of patients, and how to go about research with few obvious resources to hand.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781405145510
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
01/03/2008
Pages:
236
Product dimensions:
7.50(w) x 9.70(h) x 0.55(d)

Table of Contents

Foreword.

1. Introduction.

1.1 What Is Veterinary Clinical Research?.

1.2 What Is The ‘Scientific Method’?.

1.3 Errors And Truth.

1.4 Why Do We Perform Veterinary Clinical Research?.

1.5 Research From Practice.

References.

2. Establishing The Hypothesis.

2.1 What Is The Question?.

2.2 What Are The Characteristics Of A Good Research Question?.

2.3 Selecting The Research Questions.

2.4 The Hypothesis.

2.5 The Question Doesn’t Translate Into A Hypothesis.

2.6 Initial Study Design.

2.7 Problems With The Research Question And Study Design.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

3. Sampling, Subject Selection Criteria And Recruitment.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Surveys.

3.3 Observational Clinical Studies And Clinical Trials.

3.4 The Calculation Of Sample Size.

3.5 Summary.

Reference.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

4. Variables.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Types Of Variable.

4.3 Measurement Scales.

4.4 Precision And Accuracy.

4.5 Summary.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

5. Introducing Statistics: Preparing To Make A Sample Size Estimation.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Statistical Principles.

5.3 Testing For Statistical Significance.

5.4 Other Statistical Tests And Choosing The Appropriate Statistical Test.

Reference.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

6. How Many Animals/Patients Are Needed? Estimating The Sample Size.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Producing The Sample Size Estimate.

6.3 Sample Size Required Per Group For The Comparison Of Two Means.

6.4 Sample Size Required Per Group For The Comparison Of Multiple Means.

6.5 Sample Size Required Per Group For The Comparison Of Two Proportions.

6.6 Sample Size Techniques For Analytic Studies And Experiments.

6.7 Further Considerations When Estimating Sample Size.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

Appendix 6.1: Tables Estimating Sample Size Group For Comparing Two Proportions.

Appendix 6.2 Tables For Estimating The Sample Sizes When Comparing The Means From Two Groups.

Appendix 6.3 Tables For Estimating The Sample Size To Obtain The Value Of A Proportion.

Appendix 6.4 Table For Estimating A Sample Size To Obtain A Value For A Continuous Variable With A Particular Confidence Width.

Appendix 6.5 Tables For Estimating Sample Sizes For Studies Determining If Correlation Coefficients Differ From Zero.

7. Observational Studies: Cohort Studies.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Cohort Studies.

7.3 Prospective Cohort Studies.

7.4 Retrospective Cohort Studies.

7.5 Combined Prospective And Retrospective Survival Cohort Studies Across Time Andplace.

7.6 Nested Case-Control And Case Cohort Studies.

7.7 Multiple-Cohort Studies.

7.8 Planning A Cohort Study.

7.9 Cohort Studies And Prognosis.

7.10 Summary.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

8. Cross-Sectional And Case-Control Studies.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Cross-Sectional Studies (Prevalence Studies).

8.3 Case-Control (Retrospective) Studies.

8.4 Clinical Questions, Evidence And Experimental Design.

8.5 Summary.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

9. Clinical Randomized Controlled Trials.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Randomized Controlled Trials.

9.3 Cross-Over Designs.

9.4 Factorial Design Trials.

9.5 Features Of Randomized Clinical Trials.

9.6 Poorly Controlled Or Uncontrolled Trials.

9.7 Protocols.

9.8 Summary.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

10. Studies On Diagnostic Tests.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Measuring The Specificity, Sensitivity And Prevalence.

10.3 Tests With Continuous Measures.

10.4 Studies That Compare Two Tests To Find Out Which Is Better.

10.5 Prognostic Tests.

10.6 Studies Of Test Reproducibility (Precision).

10.7 Studies On The Impact Of A Test On Patient Outcomes.

10.8 Studies On The Feasibility, Costs And Additional Risks Of Tests.

10.9 Summary Of Clinical Test Study Designs.

10.10 Sources Of Bias In The Evaluation Of Diagnostic Tests.

10.11 Checklist For Studies Of Diagnostic Tests.

10.12 Examples.

10.13 Summary.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

11. Designing Questionnaires.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Designing A Good Questionnaire.

11.3 Designing Good Questions.

11.4 Design And Structure Of The Questionnaire Forms.

11.5 Reply-Paid Envelope.

11.6 The Covering Letter.

11.7 Pilot Testing.

11.8 Maximizing Response.

11.9 Follow-Up Letters.

11.10 Administration Of The Questionnaire.

11.11 Validation.

11.12 How Things Can Go Wrong.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

12. Study Implementation.

12.1 Pilot Studies And Pretesting.

12.2 Quality Control.

12.3 Revising The Protocol Once The Study Has Begun.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

13. Data Management.

13.1 General Considerations.

13.2 Computing Requirements.

13.3 Planning The Management Of Data.

13.4 Definition Or Coding Of Variables.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

14. Writing A Research Protocol And Applying For Funding.

14.1 Writing A Proposal.

14.2 The Elements Of A Proposal.

14.3 What Are The Characteristics Of A Good Proposal?.

14.4 What Happens Once The Proposal Has Been Sent?.

14.5 Sources Of Funding.

Further Reading.

15. Writing And Reviewing Scientific Papers.

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Writing Scientific Papers.

15.3 The Structure Of A Scientific Paper.

15.4 Selecting A Journal.

15.5 Instructions To Authors.

15.6 The Peer Review Process.

15.7 Copyright And Proofs.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

16. Ethical And Legal Considerations.

16.1 Ethical Considerations.

16.2 Ethical Principles.

16.3 Ethical Review.

16.4 Informed Consent.

16.5 Criteria For Informed Decision Making.

16.6 Practical Guidelines On Obtaining Consent And Avoiding Problems.

16.7 Other Ethical Issues.

16.8 Data Protection Legislation And Confidentiality.

16.9 The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986.

16.10 Veterinary Medicines Directorate Animal Test Certificates.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

17. Systematic Reviews, Meta-Analysis, Critically Appraised Topics, Decision Analysis, Case Series And Case Reports.

17.1 Systematic Reviews And Meta-Analysis.

17.2 Critically Appraised Topics.

17.3 Decision Analysis.

17.4 Case Series And Case Reports.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

Index

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