Handbook of Veterinary Clinical Research

Overview

The first accessible information on how to carry out veterinary clinical research. This book is an aid to increasing the quantity and quality of such research within veterinary clinical practice. Covering all the core research methods as well as aspects specific to veterinary medicine. Clinical research aims to optimize decision making in practice by answering questions on the best diagnostic options and treatments. Reading this book will help you take the intellectually rewarding step towards improving prognoses...

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Overview

The first accessible information on how to carry out veterinary clinical research. This book is an aid to increasing the quantity and quality of such research within veterinary clinical practice. Covering all the core research methods as well as aspects specific to veterinary medicine. Clinical research aims to optimize decision making in practice by answering questions on the best diagnostic options and treatments. Reading this book will help you take the intellectually rewarding step towards improving prognoses and outcomes through informed decisions. Special attention is given to ethical and legal issues, how to maximise the power of studies when faced with small numbers of patients, and how to go about research with few obvious resources to hand.

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Editorial Reviews

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Wanda J Gordon-Evans, DVM, PhD (University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine)
Description: This book, designed to aid in constructing clinical experiments, outlines the methodologies used to design different types of clinical research experiments and discusses common errors. Review questions are offered at the end of each chapter.
Purpose: The purpose is to arm those hoping to perform clinical research with the tools necessary to design appropriate trials to answer clinical questions. This is a worthy objective as most veterinarians are not trained in how to conduct clinical research. Overall, this book provides an overview of the necessary thought processes for designing clinical trials in a straightforward manner.
Audience: Practitioners who would like to embark on clinical research are the intended readers. In addition, residents in many different specialties would benefit from this book when designing clinical projects.
Features: This book provides an overview of clinical research design including different study designs and the associated evidentiary value, legal and ethical issues, and funding and practical issues. The index and table of contents provide quick reference to portions that might be used frequently, like the calculation of sample size. Although readers may skip the review questions at the end of the chapters, they may help to clear up some areas of confusion. A disadvantage of the book is the oversimplification of some aspects of clinical research. However, a more comprehensive approach may overstep the purpose and create confusion. Although some published research is used, examples of the pros and cons of current research to illustrate points for the authors would increase the clarity.
Assessment: This is useful as an introduction to clinical research and as a quick reference for sample size determination.
From the Publisher
“Any college-level collection strong in veterinary science needs a handbook [on] how to carry out clinical research … [this book] fits that bill … .Outstanding survey.” California Bookwatch

“The first accessible information on how to carry out veterinary clinical research. Covering all the core research methods as well as aspects specific to veterinary medicine. Special attention is given to ethical and legal issues … .This is useful as an introduction to clinical research and as a quick reference for sample size determination.” Doody's Reviews

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781405145510
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 1/3/2008
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 236
  • Product dimensions: 7.50 (w) x 9.70 (h) x 0.55 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr Mark Holmes is a senior lecturer in preventive veterinary medicine, Chairman of the Farm Animal Epidemiology and Informatics Unit, and director of the Outreach Program of the Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium, at the University of Cambridge.
Dr Peter Cockcroft is Programme Director of Cambridge Expert Vets, an independent veterinary education, training and support business. He was previously a senior lecturer in farm animal medicine at the University of Cambridge for 11 years.

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Table of Contents

Foreword.

1. Introduction.

1.1 What Is Veterinary Clinical Research?.

1.2 What Is The ‘Scientific Method’?.

1.3 Errors And Truth.

1.4 Why Do We Perform Veterinary Clinical Research?.

1.5 Research From Practice.

References.

2. Establishing The Hypothesis.

2.1 What Is The Question?.

2.2 What Are The Characteristics Of A Good Research Question?.

2.3 Selecting The Research Questions.

2.4 The Hypothesis.

2.5 The Question Doesn’t Translate Into A Hypothesis.

2.6 Initial Study Design.

2.7 Problems With The Research Question And Study Design.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

3. Sampling, Subject Selection Criteria And Recruitment.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Surveys.

3.3 Observational Clinical Studies And Clinical Trials.

3.4 The Calculation Of Sample Size.

3.5 Summary.

Reference.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

4. Variables.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Types Of Variable.

4.3 Measurement Scales.

4.4 Precision And Accuracy.

4.5 Summary.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

5. Introducing Statistics: Preparing To Make A Sample Size Estimation.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Statistical Principles.

5.3 Testing For Statistical Significance.

5.4 Other Statistical Tests And Choosing The Appropriate Statistical Test.

Reference.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

6. How Many Animals/Patients Are Needed? Estimating The Sample Size.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Producing The Sample Size Estimate.

6.3 Sample Size Required Per Group For The Comparison Of Two Means.

6.4 Sample Size Required Per Group For The Comparison Of Multiple Means.

6.5 Sample Size Required Per Group For The Comparison Of Two Proportions.

6.6 Sample Size Techniques For Analytic Studies And Experiments.

6.7 Further Considerations When Estimating Sample Size.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

Appendix 6.1: Tables Estimating Sample Size Group For Comparing Two Proportions.

Appendix 6.2 Tables For Estimating The Sample Sizes When Comparing The Means From Two Groups.

Appendix 6.3 Tables For Estimating The Sample Size To Obtain The Value Of A Proportion.

Appendix 6.4 Table For Estimating A Sample Size To Obtain A Value For A Continuous Variable With A Particular Confidence Width.

Appendix 6.5 Tables For Estimating Sample Sizes For Studies Determining If Correlation Coefficients Differ From Zero.

7. Observational Studies: Cohort Studies.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Cohort Studies.

7.3 Prospective Cohort Studies.

7.4 Retrospective Cohort Studies.

7.5 Combined Prospective And Retrospective Survival Cohort Studies Across Time Andplace.

7.6 Nested Case-Control And Case Cohort Studies.

7.7 Multiple-Cohort Studies.

7.8 Planning A Cohort Study.

7.9 Cohort Studies And Prognosis.

7.10 Summary.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

8. Cross-Sectional And Case-Control Studies.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Cross-Sectional Studies (Prevalence Studies).

8.3 Case-Control (Retrospective) Studies.

8.4 Clinical Questions, Evidence And Experimental Design.

8.5 Summary.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

9. Clinical Randomized Controlled Trials.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Randomized Controlled Trials.

9.3 Cross-Over Designs.

9.4 Factorial Design Trials.

9.5 Features Of Randomized Clinical Trials.

9.6 Poorly Controlled Or Uncontrolled Trials.

9.7 Protocols.

9.8 Summary.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

10. Studies On Diagnostic Tests.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Measuring The Specificity, Sensitivity And Prevalence.

10.3 Tests With Continuous Measures.

10.4 Studies That Compare Two Tests To Find Out Which Is Better.

10.5 Prognostic Tests.

10.6 Studies Of Test Reproducibility (Precision).

10.7 Studies On The Impact Of A Test On Patient Outcomes.

10.8 Studies On The Feasibility, Costs And Additional Risks Of Tests.

10.9 Summary Of Clinical Test Study Designs.

10.10 Sources Of Bias In The Evaluation Of Diagnostic Tests.

10.11 Checklist For Studies Of Diagnostic Tests.

10.12 Examples.

10.13 Summary.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

11. Designing Questionnaires.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Designing A Good Questionnaire.

11.3 Designing Good Questions.

11.4 Design And Structure Of The Questionnaire Forms.

11.5 Reply-Paid Envelope.

11.6 The Covering Letter.

11.7 Pilot Testing.

11.8 Maximizing Response.

11.9 Follow-Up Letters.

11.10 Administration Of The Questionnaire.

11.11 Validation.

11.12 How Things Can Go Wrong.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

12. Study Implementation.

12.1 Pilot Studies And Pretesting.

12.2 Quality Control.

12.3 Revising The Protocol Once The Study Has Begun.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

13. Data Management.

13.1 General Considerations.

13.2 Computing Requirements.

13.3 Planning The Management Of Data.

13.4 Definition Or Coding Of Variables.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

14. Writing A Research Protocol And Applying For Funding.

14.1 Writing A Proposal.

14.2 The Elements Of A Proposal.

14.3 What Are The Characteristics Of A Good Proposal?.

14.4 What Happens Once The Proposal Has Been Sent?.

14.5 Sources Of Funding.

Further Reading.

15. Writing And Reviewing Scientific Papers.

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Writing Scientific Papers.

15.3 The Structure Of A Scientific Paper.

15.4 Selecting A Journal.

15.5 Instructions To Authors.

15.6 The Peer Review Process.

15.7 Copyright And Proofs.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

16. Ethical And Legal Considerations.

16.1 Ethical Considerations.

16.2 Ethical Principles.

16.3 Ethical Review.

16.4 Informed Consent.

16.5 Criteria For Informed Decision Making.

16.6 Practical Guidelines On Obtaining Consent And Avoiding Problems.

16.7 Other Ethical Issues.

16.8 Data Protection Legislation And Confidentiality.

16.9 The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986.

16.10 Veterinary Medicines Directorate Animal Test Certificates.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

17. Systematic Reviews, Meta-Analysis, Critically Appraised Topics, Decision Analysis, Case Series And Case Reports.

17.1 Systematic Reviews And Meta-Analysis.

17.2 Critically Appraised Topics.

17.3 Decision Analysis.

17.4 Case Series And Case Reports.

References.

Further Reading.

Mcqs.

Answers To Mcqs.

Index

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