Handbook on Material and Energy Balance Calculations in Metallurgical Processes / Edition 1

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Overview

A revised edition of the original text, this handbook reviews the basic principles of physical chemistry, linear algebra, and statistics which are necessary to determine material and energy balances. Chapter topics include: Dimensions, Units, and Conversion Factors; Stoichiometry; Sampling and Measurements; Material Balances; Thermochemistry; and Energy Balances. In addition, three appendices covering basic properties of matrices; graphic and tabular enthalpy data for 65 elements (their oxides, halides, carbides, and nitrides); and a bibliography of related reference material.

This is a valuable textbook not just for students, but also for practicing engineers looking for a refresher text in this important area.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Inaugurating a series of textbooks to be published by The Metallurgical Society of AIME, this handbook reviews the basic principles of physical chemistry, linear algebra, and statistics which are required to enable practicing engineers to determine material and energy balances. It also includes enough worked examples and suggestions for additional reading so that novices in the field can obtain the necessary skills for making material and energy balances. Some of the mathematical techniques of use when a computer is available are also presented. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780873392242
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 7/1/1998
  • Series: Metallurgical Textbook Series
  • Edition description: 2nd, Revised Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 584
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 10.10 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: DIMENSIONS, UNITS, AND CONVERSION FACTORS.

1.0 Introduction.

1.1 The SI System of Units.

1.1.1 Units and Dimensions.

1.1.2 Prefixes.

1.1.3 Acceptable Non-SI Units.

1.1.4 Style.

1.2 Conversion Factors.

1.2.1 Conversion Factor Tables.

1.2.2 The Dimensional Equation.

1.2.3 Conversion Equations.

1.3 The Mole Unit.

1.4 Density and Concentration.

1.4.1 Density.

1.4.2 Concentration.

1.5 Electrical Units.

1.6 Summary.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

CHAPTER 2: STOICHIOMETRY.

2.0 Introduction.

2.1 Atomic and Molecular Mass (Weight).

2.2 The Chemical Equation.

2.3 The Ideal Gas Law.

2.4 Excess and Limiting Reactants.

2.5 Oxidation-Reductions.

2.6 Summary.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

CHAPTER 3: SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENTS.

3.0 Introduction.

3.1 The Importance of Errors and Error Description.

3.2 Propagation of Experimental Errors.

3.2.1 Propagation of Maximum Errors.

3.2.2 Propagation of Probable Errors.

3.2.3 Significant Figures.

3.3 Sampling Methods and Procedures.

3.3.1 Sampling Granular Solids.

3.3.2 Sampling Liquids.

3.3.3 Sampling Gases.

3.4 Weighing.

3.4.1 Belt Weighers.

3.4.2 Hopper Weighers.

3.4.3 Platform Weighers.

3.4.4 Crane Weighers.

3.4.5 Roller Conveyor Weighers.

3.5 Density Measurements.

3.5.1 Liquid Density.

3.5.2 Bulk Density.

3.5.3 Pulp (Slurry) Density.

3.6 Measurement of Temperature.

3.6.1 Thermocouples.

3.6.2 Pressure Thermometers.

3.6.3 Radiation Pyrometers.

3.7 Fluid Flow Measurement.

3.7.1 Flow Totalizers.

3.7.2 Vortex Meters.

3.7.3 Magnetic Flowmeters.

3.7.4 Variable Area Meters.

3.7.5 Variable Head Meters.

3.8 Pressure Measurement.

3.8.1 Positive Pressure.

3.8.2 Vacuum.

3.9 Chemical Analyses.

3.9.1 Emission Spectroscopy.

3.9.2 X-Ray Techniques.

3.9.3 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.

3.9.4 Chromatography.

3.9.5 Infrared Analyzers.

3.9.6 Gaseous Oxygen Analyzers.

3.10 Summary.

Further Reading.

CHAPTER 4: MATERIAL BALANCES.

4.0 Introduction.

4.1 Conservation of Matter (Mass).

4.2 Solution of Sets of Equations.

4.2.1 Partitioning of Equations.

4.2.2 Determinants.

4.2.3 Gaussian Elimination.

4.2.4 Matrix Inversion.

4.2.5 Matrix Conditioning.

4.2.6 Tearing Equations.

4.3 Material Balances.

4.3.1 Degrees of Freedom.

4.3.2 Problems Having Direct Solutions.

4.3.3 Tie Components.

4.3.4 Recycle Calculations.

4.4 Representation of Material Balances.

4.5 Summary.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

CHAPTER 5: THERMOCHEMISTRY.

5.0 Introduction.

5.1 The System.

5.1.1 Types of Thermodynamic Systems.

5.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics.

5.2.1 General Case.

5.2.2 Special Cases.

5.3 Enthalpy.

5.3.1 Enthalpy Increments.

5.3.2 Latent Heat.

5.3.3 Heat of Formation and Reaction.

5.4 Sources of Enthalpy Data.

5.4.1 Data Compilations.

5.4.2 Data from Thermodynamic Relationships.

5.5 Summary.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

CHAPTER 6: ENERGY BALANCES.

6.0 Introduction.

6.1 The Heat Balance.

6.1.1 Sankey Diagrams.

6.2 Adiabatic Reaction Temperature.

6.3 Electrical Energy.

6.3.1 Electric Power Fundamentals.

6.3.2 Electric Arc Furnaces.

6.3.3 Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR) Furnaces.

6.3.4 Electroslag Remelting (ESR) Furnaces.

6.3.5 Induction Melting and Heating Furnaces.

6.3.6 Electrochemical Processes.

6.4 Staged Heat Balances.

6.4.1 Critical Temperature and Energy Quality Requirements.

6.4.2 Energy Quantity Requirements in a Continuous Process.

6.5 Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances: Thermochemical Models.

6.6 Process Analysis.

6.6.1 Theoretical Energy Requirements for Ironmaking.

6.6.2 Energy Efficiency in the Age of Scarcity.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

APPENDICES.

A. Basic Properties of Matrices (Daniel T. Hanson).

B. Enthalpy Data.

C. Bibliography of Material and Energy Balances on Metallurgical, Cement, and Lime Processes.

INDEX.

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