Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices

Overview

“Ultimately, this is a remarkable book, a practical testimonial, and a comprehensive bibliography rolled into one. It is a single, bright sword cut across the various murky green IT topics. And if my mistakes and lessons learned through the green IT journey are any indication, this book will be used every day by folks interested in greening IT.”
Simon Y. Liu, Ph.D. & Ed.D., Editor-in-Chief, IT Professional Magazine, IEEE Computer Society, Director, U.S. National ...

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Overview

“Ultimately, this is a remarkable book, a practical testimonial, and a comprehensive bibliography rolled into one. It is a single, bright sword cut across the various murky green IT topics. And if my mistakes and lessons learned through the green IT journey are any indication, this book will be used every day by folks interested in greening IT.”
Simon Y. Liu, Ph.D. & Ed.D., Editor-in-Chief, IT Professional Magazine, IEEE Computer Society, Director, U.S. National Agricultural Library

This book presents a holistic perspective onGreen IT by discussing its various facets and showing how to strategically embrace it

Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices examines various ways of making computing and information systems greener – environmentally sustainable -, as well as several means of using Information Technology (IT) as a tool and an enabler to improve the environmental sustainability. The book focuses on both greening of IT and greening by IT – complimentary approaches to attaining environmental sustainability. In a single volume, it comprehensively covers several key aspects of Green IT - green technologies, design, standards, maturity models, strategies and adoption -, and presents a clear approach to greening IT encompassing green use, green disposal, green design, and green manufacturing. It also illustrates how to stratgically apply green IT in practice in several areas.

Key Features:

  • Presents a comprehensive coverage of key topics of imprortance and practical relevance - green technologies, design, standards, maturity models, strategies and adoption
  • Highlights several useful approaches to embracing green IT in several areas
  • Features chapters written by accomplished experts from industry and academia who have first-hand knowledge and expertise in specific areas of green IT
  • Presents a set of review and discussion questions for each chapter that will help the readers to examine and explore the green IT domain further
  • Includes a companion website providing resources for further information and presentation slides

This book will be an invaluable resource for IT Professionals, academics, students, researchers, project leaders/managers, IT business executives, CIOs, CTOs and anyone interested in Green IT and harnessing it to enhance our environment.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"This book will be an excellent resource for IT Professionals, academics, students, researchers, project leaders/managers, IT business executives, CIOs, CTOs and anyone interested in Green IT and harnessing it to enhance our environment.” (Computer Science of India (CSI) enewsletter), 1 February 2013)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781119970057
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 10/30/2012
  • Series: Wiley - IEEE Series
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 432
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.70 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr San Murugesan, University of Western Sydney, Australia
San Murugesan is Adjunct Professor in the School of Computing and Mathematics at the University of Western Sydney, Australia; and an independent IT, Research and education consultant. He is Director of the consulting firm BRITE Professional Services. He holds PhD; MTech and BE (Hons) degrees.

Dr. G.R. Gangadharan, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
G.R. Gangadharan is working as a Researcher in Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy. Prior to joining in PoliMi, he worked as a researcher at Novay (Telematica Institute), Enschede, Netherlands from June 2008 to February 2010. His research interests are mainly located on the interface between technological and business perspectives. He has received Ph.D. degree in Information and Communication Technology (2008) from the University of Trento, Trento, Italy and European University Association.

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Table of Contents

About the Editors

About the Authors

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgements

1 Green IT: An Overview

San Murugesan and G.R. Gangadharan

Key Points

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Environmental Concerns and Sustainable Development

1.2.1 The Inconvenient Truth

1.2.2 Sustainable Development

1.2.3 Why Should You Go Green?

1.3 Environmental Impacts of IT

1.4 Green IT

1.4.1 OCED Green IT Framework

1.4.2 Green IT 1.0 and 2.0

1.5 Holistic Approach to Greening IT

1.5.1 Greening Computer’s Entire Life Cycle

1.5.2 The Three Rs of Green IT

1.6 Greening IT

1.6.1 Green PCs, Notebooks and Servers

1.6.2 Green Data Centres

1.6.3 Green Cloud Computing

1.6.4 Green Data Storage

1.6.5 Green Software

1.6.6 Green Networking and Communications

1.7 Applying IT for Enhancing Environmental Sustainability

1.8 Green IT Standards and Eco-Labelling of IT

1.9 Enterprise Green IT Strategy

1.9.1 Green Washing

1.10 Green IT: Burden or Opportunity?

1.11 Conclusion

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

Further Reading and Useful Web Sites

2 Green Devices and Hardware

Ashok Pon Kumar and Sateesh S. Kannegala

Key Points

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Life Cycle of a Device or Hardware

2.2.1 Design

2.2.2 Manufacturing

2.2.3 Packaging and Transportation

2.2.4 Use

2.3 Reuse, Recycle and Dispose

2.4 Conclusions

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

3 Green Software

Bob Steigerwald and Abhishek Agrawal

Key Points

3.1 Introduction

3.1.1 Processor Power States

3.2 Energy-Saving Software Techniques

3.2.1 Computational Efficiency

3.2.2 Data Efficiency

3.2.3 Context Awareness

3.2.4 Idle Efficiency

3.3 Evaluating and Measuring Software Impact to Platform Power

3.3.1 Fluke NetDAQ® (Networked Data Acquisition Unit)

3.3.2 Software Tools

3.4 Summary

Acknowledgements

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

Further Reading

4 Sustainable Software Development

Felipe Albertao

Key Points

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Current Practices

4.3 Sustainable Software

4.4 Software Sustainability Attributes

4.5 Software Sustainability Metrics

4.5.1 Modifiability and Reusability

4.5.2 Portability

4.5.3 Supportability

4.5.4 Performance

4.5.5 Dependability

4.5.6 Usability

4.5.7 Accessibility

4.5.8 Predictability

4.5.9 Efficiency

4.5.10 Project’s Carbon Footprint

4.6 Sustainable Software Methodology

4.6.1 Collecting Metrics

4.6.2 Code Metrics Tools

4.6.3 Simplified Usability Study

4.6.4 Platform Analysis

4.6.5 Existing Project Statistics

4.7 Defining Actions

4.8 Case Study

4.8.1 Modifiability and Reusability

4.8.2 Portability

4.8.3 Supportability

4.8.4 Performance

4.8.5 Dependability

4.8.6 Usability

4.8.7 Accessibility

4.8.8 Predictability

4.8.9 Efficiency

4.8.10 Project’s Footprint

4.8.11 Results and Actions

4.9 Conclusions

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

5 Green Data Centres

Charles G. Sheridan, Keith A. Ellis, Enrique G. Castro-Leon and Christopher P. Fowler

Key Points

5.1 Data Centres and Associated Energy Challenges

5.2 Data Centre IT Infrastructure

5.2.1 Servers

5.2.2 Networking

5.2.3 Storage

5.2.4 IT Platform Innovation

5.3 Data Centre Facility Infrastructure: Implications for Energy Efficiency

5.3.1 Power

5.3.2 Cooling

5.3.3 Facilities Infrastructure Management

5.4 IT Infrastructure Management

5.4.1 Server Power

5.4.2 Consolidation

5.4.3 Virtualization

5.5 Green Data Centre Metrics

5.5.1 PUE and DCiE

5.5.2 Power versus Energy Consumption

5.6 Data Centre Management Strategies: A Case Study

5.6.1 Challenges

5.6.2 Tested Solution

5.6.3 Impact

5.6.4 A Thorough Evaluation

5.7 Conclusions

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

Further Reading and Useful Web Sites

6 Green Data Storage

Pin Zhou and Nagapramod Mandagere

Key Points

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Storage Media Power Characteristics

6.2.1 Hard Disks

6.2.2 Magnetic Tapes

6.2.3 Solid-State Drives (SSDs)

6.3 Energy Management Techniques for Hard Disks

6.3.1 State Transitioning

6.3.2 Caching

6.3.3 Dynamic RPM

6.4 System-Level Energy Management

6.4.1 RAID with Power Awareness

6.4.2 Power-Aware Data Layout

6.4.3 Hierarchical Storage Management

6.4.4 Storage Virtualization

6.4.5 Cloud Storage

6.5 Summary and Research Areas

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

7 Green Networks and Communications

Cathryn Peoples, Gerard Parr, Sally McClean and Philip Morrow

Key Points

7.1 Introduction

7.1.1 Green Network Communications and Management: Background

7.1.2 The Challenge of Next-Generation Networks

7.1.3 Benefits of Energy-Efficient Networks

7.1.4 Objectives of Green Networking

7.1.5 Core Components in Green-Networking Technology

7.2 Objectives of Green Network Protocols

7.2.1 Energy-Optimizing Protocol Design

7.2.2 Bit Costs Associated with Network Communication Protocols

7.2.3 Objectives of Green Network Protocols

7.3 Green Network Protocols and Standards

7.3.1 Strategies to Reduce Carbon Emissions

7.3.2 Contributions from the EMAN Working Group

7.3.3 Contributions from Standardization Bodies

7.3.4 Context Detail to Drive Energy Efficiency

7.4 Conclusions

Acknowledgements

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

Further Reading and Useful Web Sites

8 Enterprise Green IT Strategy

Bhuvan Unhelkar

Key Points

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Approaching Green IT Strategies

8.3 Business Drivers of Green IT Strategy

8.3.1 Cost Reduction

8.3.2 Demands from Legal and Regulatory Requirements

8.3.3 Sociocultural and Political Pressure

8.3.4 Enlightened Self-Interest

8.3.5 Collaborative Business Ecosystem

8.3.6 New Market Opportunities

8.4 Business Dimensions for Green IT Transformation

8.4.1 Economy

8.4.2 Technology

8.4.3 Processes

8.4.4 People

8.5 Organizational Considerations in a Green IT Strategy

8.6 Steps in Developing a Green IT Strategy

8.7 Metrics and Measurements in Green Strategies

8.8 Conclusions

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

9 Sustainable Information Systems and Green Metrics

Edward Curry and Brian Donnellan

Key Points

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Multilevel Sustainable Information

9.3 Sustainability Hierarchy Models

9.3.1 Sustainability Frameworks

9.3.2 Sustainability Principles

9.3.3 Tools for Sustainability

9.4 Product Level Information

9.4.1 Life-Cycle Assessment

9.4.2 The Four Stages of LCA

9.4.3 CRT Monitors versus LCD Monitors: Life Cycle Assessment

9.5 Individual Level Information

9.6 Functional Level Information

9.6.1 Data Centre Energy Efficiency

9.6.2 Data Centre Power Metrics

9.6.3 Emerging Data Centre Metrics

9.7 Organizational Level Information

9.7.1 Developing a City Sustainability Plan: A Case Study

9.7.2 Reporting Greenhouse Gas Emissions

9.8 Regional/City Level Information

9.8.1 Developing a City Sustainability Plan: A Case Study

9.9 Measuring the Maturity of Sustainable ICT

9.9.1 A Capability Maturity Framework for SICT

9.9.2 Defining the Scope and Goal

9.9.3 Capability Maturity Levels

9.9.4 SICT Capability Building Blocks

9.9.5 Assessing and Managing SICT Progress

9.10 Conclusions

Appendix: Sustainability Tools and Standards

Acknowledgements

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

Further Reading and Useful Web Sites

Tools and Carbon Calculators

10 Enterprise Green IT Readiness

Alemayehu Molla and Vanessa Cooper

Key Points

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Background: Readiness and Capability

10.3 Development of the G-Readiness Framework

10.3.1 Green IT Attitude

10.3.2 Green IT Policy

10.3.3 Green IT Governance

10.3.4 Green IT Practice

10.3.5 Green IT Technology

10.4 Measuring an Organization’s G-Readiness

10.4.1 G-Readiness Consultancy Services

10.4.2 Calculating the G-Readiness Index via a Survey Instrument

10.5 Conclusions

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

11 Sustainable IT Services: Creating a Framework for Service Innovation

Robert R. Harmon and Haluk Demirkan

Key Points

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Factors Driving the Development of Sustainable IT

11.2.1 The Sustainability Dimensions of IT

11.2.2 Corporate Sustainability, Social Responsibility and IT

11.3 Sustainable IT Services (SITS)

11.3.1 Developing a Service-Dominant Logic

11.3.2 Business Value, Customer Value and Societal Value

11.3.3 SITS as Service Science

11.4 SITS Strategic Framework

11.4.1 The SITS Value Curve

11.4.2 Integrating Sustainable IT and Business Strategy

11.5 Sustainable IT Roadmap

11.5.1 Time Horizon

11.5.2 Market Segments

11.5.3 Products, Services and Technologies

11.5.4 Compliance, Regulations, Standards and Reporting

11.5.5 SITS Standards and Reporting

11.5.6 Organizational Changes

11.5.7 Value Goals

11.6 SITS Leadership and Best Practices

11.6.1 IBM

11.6.2 Cisco Systems, Inc.

11.6.3 Siemens AG

11.6.4 HP

11.6.5 Intel Corporation

11.6.6 Microsoft Corporation

11.6.7 Oracle

11.6.8 Google

11.6.9 Apple

11.6.10 Samsung

11.6.11 Pachube

11.6.12 SeeClickFix

11.7 Conclusions

11.8 Summary

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

Useful Web Sites

12 Green Enterprises and the Role of IT

Joseph Sarkis

Key Points

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Organizational and Enterprise Greening

12.2.1 The Green Enterprise: A Value Chain Perspective

12.3 Information Systems in Greening Enterprises

12.3.1 Environmental Management Information Systems

12.3.2 Software and Databases

12.3.3 ERP EMISs

12.3.4 ERP Challenges and Deficiencies with Respect to EMIS

12.3.5 Integrating Environmental and LCA Information with ERP

12.3.6 Electronic Environmental and Sustainability Reporting

12.4 Greening the Enterprise: IT Usage and Hardware

12.4.1 Environmental Information Technology Standards

12.4.2 Green Management of Data Centres

12.5 Inter-organizational Enterprise Activities and Green Issues

12.5.1 Electronic Commerce and Greening the Extended Enterprise

12.5.2 Demanufacturing and Reverse Logistics

12.5.3 Eco-Industrial Parks and Information Systems

12.6 Enablers and Making the Case for IT and the Green Enterprise

12.7 Conclusions

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

13 Environmentally Aware Business Process Improvement in the Enterprise Context

Konstantin Hoesch-Klohe and Aditya Ghose

Key Points

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Identifying the Environmental Impact of an Activity or Process

13.2.1 Educated Guess by an Expert

13.2.2 Derivation from a Resource Model

13.2.3 Carbon-Dioxide Accumulation

13.2.4 Activity-Based Costing

13.3 A Decision Support Tool for Environmentally Aware Business Process Improvement

13.3.1 Some Preliminaries

13.3.2 The Business Process Improvement System

13.4 Process Improvement in the Enterprise Context

13.4.1 The Enterprise Ecosystem

13.4.2 Enterprise Ecosystem Equilibrium

13.5 Impact and Change Propagation Analysis

13.5.1 Identifying the Consequences of a Business Process Change

13.5.2 Re-Establishing a State of Equilibrium

13.6 Trade-Off Analysis

13.6.1 Cost to Bring about the Change

13.6.2 Environmental Operating Costs

13.7 An Example

13.7.1 As-Is Scenario

13.7.2 Improvement Scenarios

13.7.3 Assessing Scenarios

13.8 Conclusions

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

14 Managing Green IT

Linda R. Wilbanks

Key Points

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Strategizing Green Initiatives

14.2.1 Strategic Thinking

14.2.2 Strategic Planning

14.2.3 Strategic Implementation

14.2.4 Enterprise Architecture Planning

14.3 Implementation of Green IT

14.3.1 Return on Investment

14.3.2 Metrics

14.3.3 The Goal–Question–Metric (GQM) Paradigm

14.4 Information Assurance

14.4.1 Risk Management

14.5 Communication and Social Media

14.6 Case Study

14.7 Summary

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

15 Regulating Green IT: Laws, Standards and Protocols

Tom Butler

Key Points

15.1 Introduction

15.2 The Regulatory Environment and IT Manufacturers

15.2.1 RoHS

15.2.2 REACh

15.2.3 WEEE

15.2.4 Legislating for GHG Emissions and Energy Use of IT Equipment

15.3 Nonregulatory Government Initiatives

15.4 Industry Associations and Standards Bodies

15.5 Green Building Standards

15.6 Green Data Centres

15.7 Social Movements and Greenpeace

15.8 Conclusions

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

Further Reading

16 Green Cloud Computing and Environmental Sustainability

Saurabh Kumar Garg and Rajkumar Buyya

Key Points

16.1 Introduction

16.2 What is Cloud Computing?

16.2.1 Cloud Computing Characteristics

16.2.2 Components of Cloud Computing

16.2.3 Cloud Computing Deployment Models

16.3 Cloud Computing and Energy Usage Model: A Typical Example

16.3.1 User and Cloud Software Applications

16.3.2 Cloud Software Stack for the SaaS, PaaS and IaaS Levels

16.3.3 Network Devices

16.3.4 Data Centres

16.4 Features of Clouds Enabling Green Computing

16.5 Towards Energy Efficiency of Cloud Computing

16.5.1 Applications

16.5.2 Cloud Software Stack: Virtualization and Provisioning

16.5.3 Data Centre Level: Cooling, Hardware, Network and Storage

16.5.4 Monitoring and Metering

16.5.5 Network Infrastructure

16.6 Green Cloud Architecture

16.7 Case Study: IaaS Provider

16.8 Conclusions and Future Directions

Acknowledgements

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

17 Harnessing Semantic Web Technologies for the Environmental Sustainability of Production Systems

Chris Davis, Igor Nikolic and Gerard Dijkema

Key Points

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Information Management for Environmental Sustainability

17.2.1 Invisible Coordination

17.2.2 Sustainability and Networks

17.2.3 Need for Information Management Techniques

17.3 Ecosystem of Software Tools

17.3.1 MediaWiki

17.3.2 Semantic MediaWiki

17.3.3 SparqlExtension

17.3.4 Semantic Web

17.4 Examples of Managing Data

17.4.1 Pages for Commodities

17.4.2 Pages for Processes

17.4.3 Pages for Overviews and Information Management

17.4.4 Reuse of Data across Multiple Levels and Points of View

17.5 Challenges and Guiding Principles

17.5.1 Challenges

17.5.2 Guiding Principles

17.6 Conclusions

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

Further Reading and Useful Web Sites

18 Green IT: An Outlook

San Murugesan and G.R. Gangadharan

Key Points

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Awareness to Implementation

18.2.1 Green IT Trends

18.2.2 Green Engineering

18.3 Greening by IT

18.3.1 Using RFID for Environmental Sustainability

18.3.2 Smart Grids

18.3.3 Smart Buildings and Homes

18.3.4 Green Supply Chain and Logistics

18.3.5 Enterprise-Wide Environmental Sustainability

18.4 Green IT: A Megatrend?

18.4.1 Outsourcing and Environmental Attributes

18.4.2 Green Audit

18.5 A Seven-Step Approach to Creating Green IT Strategy

18.5.1 Balancing the Costs and Benefits of Going Green

18.6 Research and Development Directions

18.7 Prospects

Review Questions

Discussion Questions

References

Glossary

Index

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