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Each volume of the Facts On File Library in a Book series is carefully designed to be a first-stop research source on important current issues. Written clearly and carefully so that even the most complex aspects of the topic are easily understandable, the books give the reader the essential information to begin work, plus the research tools needed to delve more deeply into the issues. Each book includes a history of the subject, biographical information on important figures in the field, a complete annotated bibliography, and a carefully designed index-everything the researcher needs to get down to work.
A criminal offense is regarded as a hate crime when it includes the element of bias. While hate crime is not a distinct federal offense, it became an official statistical category in the United States in 1990, and in 1993 the Supreme Court approved state-level penalty-enhancement schemes for hate crimes in Wisconsin v. Mitchell. Since then, Supreme Court and state court cases have put important constitutional limits on the enforcement and prosecution of hate crimes statutes, and Congress has repeatedly debated whether to enact a federal hate-crimes law.
Do hate crimes represent acts committed against entire communities, thus justifying penalty enhancement? And if so, should hate-crimes laws protect crime victims based on their disability, sexual orientation, or gender identity? Or should the law make no distinction between bias crimes and ordinary crimes? Americans still vehemently dispute the answers. Hate Crimes, Revised Edition provides students and general readers with the resources necessary to define, understand, and research one of the most contentious topics in theUnited States today.
|Pt. I||Overview of the Topic|
|Ch. 1||Introduction to Hate Crimes||3|
|Ch. 2||The Law of Hate Crime||43|
|Ch. 4||Biographical Listing||128|
|Pt. II||Guide to Further Research|
|Ch. 6||How to Research Hate Crimes||141|
|Ch. 7||Annotated Bibliography||153|
|Ch. 8||Organizations and Agencies||224|
|App. A||Hate Crimes Prevention Act (2003)||247|
|App. B||Advocacy and Debate over Pending Legislation: The Local Law Enforcement Enhancement Act||251|
|App. C||Identifying a Hate Crime in New York||258|
|App. D||Police Response to Hate Crime Incidents (1999)||260|
|App. E||Memo from President Clinton (2000)||269|
|App. F||Hate Crime: The Candidates Debate (2000)||272|
|App. G||U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs/Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report: Hate Crimes Reported in NIBRS, 1997-99 (September 2001)||275|
|App. H||FBI Uniform Crimes Report Section on Hate Crime (2000)||284|
|App. I||List of State Hate Crime Statutes (2000)||288|