Having Your Say: Reading and Writing Public Arguments / Edition 1

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Overview

Having Your Say takes an inquiry-based, problem-solving approach to reading and writing arguments on real-world public policy issues.

This rhetoric of argument with readings engages students in-depth on two important public policy issues: crime and the environment. Students investigate the nature and causes of problems, analyze the effects of proposed solutions, and anticipate the reactions of stakeholders in the issue. By considering the social and historical context of an issue and the interests of stakeholders, student-authors develop more interesting, original, and substantive arguments and gain confidence in their ability to get involved and participate in public discourse.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321122308
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 7/1/2005
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 528
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface

1. What It Takes to Have Your Say

Writing as Exploration

Arguing

Arguing at a Distance

Exploring the Issues in this Book

Examples of Issues

Perspectives on Issues

Having YOUR Say

Learning to Have Your Say

Exercises

I. CRITICAL READING: EXPLORING A POINT OF VIEW

2. Spans: The Segments of an Argument

The Issue Span: Seeing the Issue

Variations in the Issue Span

Tip-Off Terms

Recognizing the Boundaries of the Issue Span

The Problem Span: Understanding the Problem

Explaining the Tension

Tip-Off Terms

Change in Scope: Separating the Issue and Problem Spans

The Solution Span: Finding and Evaluating Options

Tip-Off Terms

Solution Span in the Readings

Is There Any Solution?

Drawing Lines Between the Spans

Inferring the Author's Starting Point

Using Spans to Analyze, to Explore, and to Guide

Exercises

3. Stases: Taking Standpoints Along a Path

The Stasis Sequence in Different Spans

Dividing a Span into Stases

Existence Claims

The Point of an Existence Claim

Developing Existence Arguments

Clues for Spotting Existence Claims

Tip-Off Terms

Definition Claims

The Point of a Definition Claim

Developing Definition Arguments

Clues to Spotting Definition Claims

Tip-Off Terms

Distinguishing Between Definition and Existence Claims

Value Claims

The Point of a Value Claim

Developing Value Arguments

Positive and Negative Phrasing

Standards

Absolute and Relative Values

Clues to Spotting Value Claims

Tip-Off Terms

Distinguishing Between Value and Definition Claims

Cause Claims

The Point of a Cause Claim

Agents and Factors

Developing Cause Arguments

Clues to Spotting Cause Claims

Tip-Off Terms

Action Claims

The Point of an Action Claim

Clues to Spotting Action Claims

Tip-Off Terms

Choices of Agent and Action

The Size and Shape of a Stasis

Exercises

4. Supporting Claims: Appealing to Logos, Ethos and Pathos

Appeals to Logos

Observations, Testimony, and Statistics

Logic, Common Sense and Probability

Appeals to Ethos

Independent Experts

Eyewitnesses

Stakeholders

Personal Experience

The Author's Ethos

Appeals to Pathos

Naming Emotions

Invoking Sensations

Using Graphics

Supporting Claims at Each Stases

Signalling Degrees of Uncertainty

Clues for Spotting Uncertainty

The Point of Uncertainty: Making Progress

Breadth and Depth: Spans, Stases and Appeals

Appeals Charts for Castleman and Chivers

Exercises

5. Junctions: Crossing Alternative Paths

The Point of Disagreeing

The Main Path and Alternative Paths

Identifying Opponents

Naming People and Groups

Defining and Naming a Group

Cross Roads: The Opponent’s Alternative Path

Merging Lanes: Concessions

Taking the Exit: Rebuttal

Signaling Disagreement

Signaling Agreement With Verbs Of Attribution

Challenging the Claim

Challenging the Support

Re-entering the Main Path: Restatement

Exercises

6. Style: Appealing Through Language

Identifying a Popular Opinion Style

Dealing with a Provocative Style

Provocative Insiders

Putting a Provocative Style in Perspective

Dealing with a Journalistic Style

Dealing with an Academic Style

A Combination of Styles in College Writing

Exercises

PART I READINGS

Environment

Chivers C. J. “Scraping Bottom”

Easterbrook, Gregg. “They Stopped the Sky from Falling”

Gomez-Pompa, Arturo, and Andrea Kaus. “Taming the Wilderness Myth”

Shiflett, Dave. "Parks and Wreck - Against Jet Skiers, Snowmobilers, and Other Louts"

Kristof, Nicholas. "In Praise of Snowmobiles"

Robinson, John. "The Responsibility to Conserve Wild Species"

Crime

Castleman, Michael. “Opportunity Knocks”

Kleck, Gary. “There Are No Lessons to Be Learned from Littleton.”

Meares, Tracey and Dan Kahan. “When Rights are Wrong”

Brooks, George. “Let’s Not Gang Up on Our Kids”

Kollin, Joe. "Why Don't We Name Juveniles?"

Shapiro, Bruce. "One Violent Crime"

II. EXPLORING AN ISSUE

7. Finding Entry Points

From a Text to a Conversation

Authors and Arguments

Scholars

Stakeholders

Decision Makers

Pundits

Cases

Real World Cases

Problem Cases

Ideal Cases

Hypothetical cases

Personal Experience

Starting an Authentic Exploration

Exercises

8. Surveying the Terrain

Sources

Newspapers and Magazines

Trade and Professional Association Journals

Advocacy Journals and Sites

Government Publications and Websites

Scholarly Journals

Books

Television News and Weekly Popular News Magazines

Combining Sources: Where to Begin

Searching and Selecting Strategies

Using Indexes and Databases

Finding Authorship Data on Websites

Evaluating Sources

Relevance

Originality

Document Type

Timeliness

Ethos of Author or Sponsoring Group

Summing Up the Value of a Source

9. Exploring by Responding

Narrating a Case

Lay out the Details

Narrate the Frustration

Show instead of always Telling

Responding to an Author

Agreeing and Disagreeing

Using Rogerian Argument

Playing Devil's Advocate

Imitating

Arguing and Expressing

10. Exploring and Constructing a Problem

Two Strategies for Exploring the Problem

Stating a Problem

Stating Goals

Exploring Possible Causes

Working Backwards from a Solution

Analyzing Problem Cases

Collecting and Grouping Cases

Varying the Aspects with Hypothetical Cases

Exploring Significance

Narrating a Case

11. Exploring and Constructing Solutions

Facing the Unknown

Generating Solutions from Problem Statements

Changing the Terrain

Changing Goals or Values

Changing Expectations and Observations

Generating Solutions from Cases

Finding Previously Tried Solutions

Importing a Solution through Analogy

Testing Solutions with Cases

Predicting Effects on Problem Cases

Evaluating Costs and Benefits

12. Mapping a Conversation

Relating Your Position to Others’

Synthesis Defined

Selecting a Relevant Set of Authors

What are Synthesis Trees?

Sample Student Trees

Identifying Common Approaches

Grouping Authors

Branching out Groups and Subgroups

Drawing Fair Inferences

Asking Argument-Based Questions

Problem Trees and Solution Trees

Trees Based on Stasis

Testing the Tree

Role-Playing

Testing with Problem Cases

Looking for Coherence and Balance

Exercises

III. HAVING YOUR SAY

13. Having Your Say on an Author's Argument

Planning Purpose and Audience

Planning Your Line of Argument

Allocating Space and Planning the Arrangement

Criteria for a Good Problem-Based Argument

Peer Review Questions

Sample Papers

14. Having Your Say by Responding to an Author

Planning Purpose and Audience

Planning Your Line of Argument

Allocating Space and Planning the Arrangement

Criteria for a Good Problem-Based Argument

Peer Review Questions

Sample Papers

15. Having Your Say on the State of the Debate

State of the Debate Papers versus Response Papers

Sample State of the Debate Papers

Planning Purpose and Audience

Planning Your Line of Argument

Choosing a Paradigm Case

Approaches

Describing Positions Within an Approach

Allocating Space and Planning the Arrangement

Adopting an Analytic Style

Criteria for a Good State of the Debate Paper

Peer Review Questions

16. Having Your Say on the Problem

Planning Purpose and Audience

Planning Your Line of Argument

Allocating Space and Planning the Arrangement

Criteria for a Good Problem-Based Argument

Peer Review Questions

Sample Papers

17. Having Your Say on the Solution

Planning Purpose and Audience

Planning Your Line of Argument

Allocating Space and Planning the Arrangement

Criteria for a Good Solution-Based Argument

Peer Review Questions

Sample Student Papers

IV. READING AND WRITING RESOURCES

18. Critical Reading Process

Preparing to Read

Reading for the First Time

Reading to Deepen Your Understanding

Reading to Map Out the Argument

Following Through After Reading

Exercises

19. A Repertoire of Writing Processes

Writing Process Components

Individual Process Styles

Planning

Types of Plans

Planning an Arrangement

Returning to Planning for Midcourse Corrections

Drafting

Strategies for Generating Plans and Passages

Freewriting

Talking It Out

Using Keyword Templates

Evaluating

Detecting

Diagnosing

Revising

Revising for Organization

Editing

When is the Best Time to Revise and Edit

Getting Stuck and Unstuck

20. Rhetorical Planning

Having Something New to Say

Relating to an Audience

Adopting a Role

Insiders and Outsiders

Allies and Opponents

Addressing Readers

Allocating Space

Establishing Common Ground

Assuming Some Consensus: Getting a Head Start

Encouraging Insiders to Reconsider

Making Concessions: Going the Extra Mile

Responding with Civility

21. Collaborative Evaluation and Revision

Why Revise Collaboratively?

Taking on a Helpful Role

Giving Helpful Feedback

Detect

Reflect

Diagnose

Suggest

Comments to Avoid

Using Feedback during Revision

Giving Feedback to Reviewers

22. Documentation Conventions

Two Parts of Documentation: In-Text Citations and Lists of Sources

In-Text Citations

Direct Reference Citations

Indirect Parenthetical Citations

Citations to Sources with Unknown Authors

Lists of Sources

Books

Periodicals

Personal Communications

Glossary of Keywords


Bibliographies for Crime and Environment


Index

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