Hazardous Materials Incidents / Edition 2

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Designed for all first responders who encounter hazardous materials emergencies, this reader-friendly training guide not only covers all of the competencies in the 2002 Edition of the NFPA 472 Standard at the awareness and operations levels, but also offers beneficial information on air monitoring, terrorism, and special operations issues! Marked by its risk-based response philosophy, Hazardous Materials Incidents, 2E focuses on the safest and most efficient methods for handling hazardous materials incidents. Readers are provided real-life experiences through case studies that integrate theoretical strategies with authentic HazMat situations, reinforcing the lessons covered. All-inclusive coverage features a special chapter on the interactions between law enforcement, firefighters, and EMS personnel to most effectively respond to hazardous materials events.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781401857585
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • Publication date: 12/31/2003
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 288
  • Product dimensions: 8.30 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Chris Hawley is a Deputy Program Manager for Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and is responsible for several WMD courses within the DOD/FBI/DHS International Counterproliferation Program. Previous to his international work, Chris retired as a Fire Specialist with the Baltimore County Fire Department and was responsible for the coordination of the Hazardous Materials Response Team and the Advanced Technical Rescue Team along with two team leaders. Chris has designed innovative programs in hazardous materials and anti-terrorism and has assisted in the development of many other training programs provided by the National Fire Academy, Federal Bureau of Investigation, and U.S. Secret Service.

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Table of Contents

Foreword x
Preface xi
Acknowledgments xii
Reviewers xiii
About the Author xiv
Introduction to Hazardous Materials xv
NFPA 472 Correlation Guide xvi
Chapter 1 Hazardous Materials: Laws, Regulations, and Standards 1
Objectives 3
Introduction 3
Laws, Regulations, and Standards 4
Development Process 4
Emergency Planning 4
State and Local Emergency Response Committees 4
Local Emergency Response Plans 5
Chemical Inventory Reporting 5
OSHA HAZWOPER Regulation 7
Paragraph q 9
Medical Monitoring 10
Standards 11
NFPA 471 11
NFPA 472 11
NFPA 473 11
Standard of Care 11
Additional Laws, Regulations, and Standards 12
Hazard Communication 12
Superfund Act 12
Clean Air Act 13
Respiratory Protection 13
Firefighter Safety 13
NFPA Chemical Protective Clothing 13
Summary 13
Key Terms 13
Review Questions 14
Suggested Readings 14
Chapter 2 Recognition and Identification 15
Objectives 17
Introduction 17
Location and Occupancy 17
Placards, Labels, and Markings 18
Placards 18
Problems with the Placarding System 28
Labeling and Marking Specifics 29
Other Identification Systems 29
NFPA 704 System 29
Hazardous Materials Information System 31
Military Warning System 31
Pipeline Markings 32
Container Markings 33
Pesticide Container Markings 34
Containers 34
General Containers 34
Totes and Bulk Tanks 37
Pipelines 38
Highway Transportation Containers 39
Response to Potential BLEVE Situations 45
Specialized Tank Trucks 48
Intermodal Tanks 51
Rail Transportation 55
Bulk Storage Tanks 58
Senses 63
Chemical and Physical Properties 63
States of Matter 63
Vapor Pressure 65
Vapor Density 66
Specific Gravity 68
Corrosivity 69
Chemical Reactivity 70
Flash Point 70
Auto-Ignition Temperature 70
Flammable Range 70
Toxic Products of Combustion 71
Summary 72
Key Terms 72
Review Questions 73
Endnotes 74
Suggested Readings 74
Chapter 3 Information Resources 75
Objectives 77
Introduction 77
Emergency Response Guidebook 77
Material Safety Data Sheets 90
Shipping Papers 92
Mode of Transportation 95
Facility Documents 98
Computer Resources 98
Chemtrec 99
Reference and Information Texts 99
Industrial Technical Assistance 100
Summary 101
Key Terms 101
Review Questions 101
Suggested Readings 101
Chapter 4 Protection 103
Objectives 105
Introduction 105
Health Hazards 106
Toxicology 106
Types of Exposures 106
Types of Hazards 106
Categories of Health Hazards 107
Routes of Exposure 108
Exposure Levels 110
Types of PPE 113
Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus 114
Chemical Protective Clothing 115
Level A Ensemble 116
Level B Ensemble 118
Level C Ensemble 119
Level D Suits 119
High Temperature Clothing 119
Cold Temperature Clothing 120
Limitations of PPE 120
Heat Stress 121
Mobility 123
Visibility 123
Communications 123
Summary 123
Key Terms 123
Review Questions 124
Endnote 124
Suggested Readings 124
Chapter 5 Protective Actions 125
Objectives 127
Introduction 127
Incident Management Systems 127
Hazardous Materials Management Processes 130
Isolation and Protection 130
Rescue 131
Site Management 134
Establishment of Zones 134
Evacuations and Sheltering in Place 138
Common Incidents 140
Types of Releases 140
Explosives 141
Gases 144
Flammable and Combustible Liquids 147
Flammable Solids/Water Reactives/Spontaneously Combustible 147
Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides 150
Poisons 151
Radioactive 151
Corrosives 152
Other Incidents 153
Decontamination 154
Types of Decontamination 155
Emergency Decontamination 155
Gross Decontamination 155
Formal Decontamination 156
Fine Decontamination 156
Mass Decontamination 157
Decontamination Process 157
Methods of Decontamination 157
Summary 165
Key Terms 165
Review Questions 166
Endnotes 167
Suggested Readings 167
Chapter 6 Product Control and Air Monitoring 169
Objectives 171
Introduction 171
Defensive Operations 171
Absorption 171
Diking and Damming 172
Diverting 174
Retention 176
Dilution 176
Vapor Dispersion 176
Vapor Suppression 177
Remote Shutoffs 177
Air Monitoring at the First Responder Operations Level 177
Regulations and Standards 178
Air Monitor Configurations 178
Meter Terminology 179
Bump Test 179
Calibration 179
Reaction Time 180
Recovery Time 180
Relative Response 180
Oxygen Monitors 180
Oxygen Monitor Limitations 181
Flammable Gas Indicators 181
Flammable Gas Sensor Types 182
Toxic Gas Monitors 183
Other Detectors 184
Carbon Monoxide Incidents 185
Summary 187
Key Terms 187
Review Questions 188
Suggested Readings 188
Chapter 7 Terrorism Awareness 189
Objectives 191
Introduction 191
Types of Terrorism 196
Potential Targets 197
Indicators of Terrorism 199
Incident Actions 201
General Groupings of Warfare Agents 203
Nerve Agents 203
Incendiary Agents 204
Blister Agents (Vesicants) 204
Blood and Choking Agents 204
Irritants (Riot Control) 205
Biological Agents and Toxins 205
Radioactives 207
Other Terrorism Agents 207
Detection of Terrorism Agents 207
Test Strips 208
Colorimetric Sampling 209
Handheld Electronic Detection Devices 209
Biological Agent Detection 210
Federal Assistance 211
Basic Incident Priorities 212
Summary 213
Key Terms 213
Review Questions 214
Endnotes 214
Suggested Readings 214
Chapter 8 HAZMAT and Law Enforcement 215
Objectives 217
Introduction 217
Common HAZMAT Incidents 217
Blood-Borne Pathogens 218
Drugs and Chemical Effects 218
Clandestine Labs 218
Drug Labs 219
Explosives Labs 221
Terrorism Agent Labs 222
Explosives Incidents 223
Bomb Squad and HAZMAT Interface 223
General Rules 223
Special Situations 223
SWAT Operations 225
Intel 225
Special Considerations 225
Setup 227
Emergency Conditions 228
Evidence Collection 229
Considerations 229
Operations and Entry 230
Summary 231
Key Terms 231
Review Questions 231
Suggested Readings 231
Glossary 233
Abbreviations 239
Index 241
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