Hazards to Drinking Water Supplies

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781447131892
  • Publisher: Springer London
  • Publication date: 12/31/2013
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1992
  • Pages: 177
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.40 (d)

Table of Contents

1 History of Water Supply Systems.- History of Water Quality.- Composition of Raw Water.- History of the Water Supply Companies.- Pre 1900.- 1900 to 1948.- 1950s to 1990.- Post Privatisation.- The Scottish Situation.- 2 Types of Pollution.- Water Found Naturally is Never Pure.- Definitions of Pollution.- Pollution Philosophy.- General Industrial Activities.- Agriculture.- Forestry.- Local Authorities.- Water Treatment Facilities.- Transportation.- Recreation.- Natural Pollution.- Diffuse Sources.- Point Sources.- 3 Causes and Consequences of Toxic Incidents.- Causes.- Industrial Releases.- Agricultural Releases.- Sewage and Sewerage Operations.- Other Sources of Pollution.- Consequences.- Heavy Metals.- Organic Solvents.- Organic Toxins.- Infective Agents.- Other Diseases.- 4 Perception and Acceptance of Risk.- Hazard Identification.- Research.- Review.- Monitoring.- Assessment.- Risk Estimation.- Voluntary Risks.- Involuntary Risks.- Societal Risk Assessment.- Acceptable Risks.- Dimensions of Risk and Benefits.- Risk Avoidance and Reduction.- Avoidance of Risks.- The Role of the Media.- Acceptance of Risks.- Financial Cost of Risks.- Benefit versus Risk.- Destruction of the Rain Forests.- Chlorinated Fluorocarbons.- Fertilisers and Pesticides.- New Chemical Substances.- Fossil Fuel Burning.- Recycling of Waste Products.- Food Additives.- The Final Arbiter.- 5 Hazard Identification and Risk Quantification of Drinking Water.- Potential Abstraction Risk Index.- Basis of the Method.- Calculation of the PARI Rating.- Organoleptic Considerations using PARI(H) and PARI(A).- OECD Recommendations.- Risk Quantification.- Risk Quantification Procedure.- 6 Case Studies.- LD 50 (mammalian) Values.- Acceptable Concentration.- Case Study 1: Minimata.- Description of Incident.- Analysis of Incident.- Case Study 2: Showa.- Description of Incident.- Analysis of Incident.- Case Study 3: Goshonoura.- Description of Incident.- Analysis of Incident.- Case Study 4: Iraq.- Description of Incident.- Analysis of Incident.- Case Study 5: Jintsu River.- Description of Incident.- Analysis of Incident.- Case Study 6: Leipzig.- Description of Incident.- Analysis of Incident.- Case Study 7: Tokyo.- Description of Incident.- Analysis of Incident.- Case Study 8: Richmond, Virginia.- Description of Incident.- Analysis of Incident.- Case Study 9: Niagra.- Description of Incident.- Analysis of Incident.- Case Study 10: Elgin.- Description of Incident.- Analysis of Incident.- Case Study 11: Woodkirk.- Description of Incident.- Analysis of Incident.- Case Study 12: Schweizerhalle.- Description of Incident.- Analysis of Incident.- Case Study 13: Camelford.- Description of Incident.- Analysis of Incident.- Case Study 14: Chirk.- Description of Incident.- Analysis of Incident.- 7 Pollution Monitoring, Detection, Identification and Assessment Systems.- Pollution Monitoring and Detection.- Methods of Detection of Pollutants.- Assessment of Pollution Monitoring and Detection Systems.- Biological Pollution Monitoring.- Physical Analysis.- Chemical Analysis.- Reliability of Water Treatment Systems in the Removal of Pollutants from Raw Water.- Filtration.- Coagulation.- Sedimentation.- Disinfection.- Methods of Pollution Reporting.- 8 Treatment Methods for Drinking Water.- Definition of Water Treatment.- History of Water Treatment.- Basic Water Treatment Methods.- Coagulation.- Sedimentation.- Filtration.- Floatation Systems.- Carbon Adsorption.- Chemical Oxidation.- Aeration.- Removal of Pollutants from Rivers.- Prevention at Source.- Application of the PARI Rating System in the Assessment of Potentially Hazardous Sites.- The River Dee System of Water Protection.- Abstracted Drinking Water Supplies from the River Dee.- River Dee Water Monitoring Procedure.- Deesit/Deepol System.- River Dee Survey.- 9 Surface Water Pollution in Europe.- Water Pollution in European States.- Austria.- Belgium.- Denmark.- Finland.- France.- Germany.- Italy.- Luxembourg.- Netherlands.- Norway.- Spain.- Sweden.- Switzerland.- United Kingdom.- Sewage Treatment within EC Member States.- Summary.- 10 The Role of Legislation.- Control of Pollution Act (1974) Part 11.- Water Act 1983.- Water Act 1989.- The Requirements of Legislation.- The Legislative Role.- 11 General Conclusions and Recommendations.- General Conclusions.- Recommendations.- Recommendations for Use of PARI Ratings.- Appendix Drinking Water Standards.- References.

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