# Health and Numbers: A Problems-Based Introduction to Biostatistics / Edition 3

ISBN-10: 0470185899

ISBN-13: 9780470185896

Pub. Date: 01/27/2009

Publisher: Wiley

Like its two successful previous editions, Health & Numbers: A Problems-Based Introduction to Biostatistics, Third Edition, is the only fully problems-based introduction to biostatistics and offers a concise introduction to basic statistical concepts and reasoning at a level suitable for a broad spectrum of students and professionals in medicine and the

## Overview

Like its two successful previous editions, Health & Numbers: A Problems-Based Introduction to Biostatistics, Third Edition, is the only fully problems-based introduction to biostatistics and offers a concise introduction to basic statistical concepts and reasoning at a level suitable for a broad spectrum of students and professionals in medicine and the allied health fields. This book has always been meant for use by advanced students who have not previously had an introductory biostatistics course - material often presented in a one-semester course - or by busy professionals who need to learn the basics of biostatistics. This user-friendly resource features over 200 real-life examples and real data to discuss and teach fundamental statistical methods. The new edition offers even more exercises than the second edition, and features enhanced Microsoft Excel and SAS samples and examples. Health & Numbers, Third Edition, truly strikes a balance between principles and methods of calculation that is particularly useful for students in medicine and health-related fields who need to know biostatistics.

## Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780470185896
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
01/27/2009
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
336
Product dimensions:
7.40(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.80(d)

## Related Subjects

Preface xi

Introduction from the First Edition xv

1 Proportions, Rates, and Ratios 1

1.1 Proportions 1

1.1.1 Comparative Studies 2

1.1.2 Screening Tests 5

1.1.3 Displaying Proportions 7

1.2 Rates 12

1.2.1 Changes 12

1.2.2 Measures of Morbidity and Mortality 13

1.2.3 Standardization of Rates 15

1.3 Ratios 18

1.3.1 Relative Risk 18

1.3.2 Odds and Odds Ration 19

1.3.3 The Mantel-Haenszel Method 21

1.4 Computational and Visual Aids 26

1.4.1 Computer Screen 27

1.4.2 Formula Bar 27

1.4.3 Cut and Paste 27

1.4.4 Select and Drag 28

1.4.5 Bar and Pie Charts 28

1.4.6 Rate Standardization 29

1.4.7 Forming 2 × 2 Tables 30

Exercises 31

2 Organization, Summarization, and Presentation of Data 52

2.1 Tabular and Graphical Methods 52

2.1.1 One-Way Scatter Plots 52

2.1.2 Frequency Distribution 53

2.1.3 Histogram and the Frequency Polygon 57

2.1.4 The Cumulative Frequency Graph and Percentiles 63

2.2 Numerical Methods 68

2.2.1 Mean 69

2.2.2 Other Measures of Location 70

2.2.3 Measures of Dispersion 71

2.3 Coefficient of Correlation 74

2.4 Visual and Computational Aids 79

2.4.1 Histograms 79

2.4.2 Descriptive Statistics 80

2.4.3 Pearson's Coefficient of Correlation 81

Exercises 82

3 Probability and Probability Models 98

3.1 Probability 98

3.1.1 The Certainty of Uncertainty 99

3.1.2 Probability 99

3.1.3 Rules of Probabilities 101

3.1.4 Statistical Relationship 103

3.1.5 Using Screening Tests 104

3.1.6 Measuring Agreement 106

3.2 The Normal Distribution 110

3.2.1 Shape of the Normal Curve 110

3.2.2 Areas Under the Standard Normal Curve 112

3.2.3 The Normal as a Probability Model 118

3.3 ProbabilityModels 120

3.3.1 Variables and Distributions 121

3.3.2 Probability Models For Discrete Data 121

3.3.3 Probability Models For Continuous Data 125

3.4 Computational Aids 127

3.4.1 Normal Curves 127

3.4.2 The "t" Curves 128

Exercises 130

4 Confidence Estimation 135

4.1 Basic Concepts 136

4.1.1 Statistics as Variables 136

4.1.2 Sampling Distributions 137

4.1.3 Introduction to Confidence Estimation 139

4.2 Estimation of a Population Mean 140

4.2.1 Confidence Intervals for a Population Mean 142

4.2.2 Use of Small Samples 144

4.2.3 Evaluation of Interventions 145

4.3 Estimation of a Population Proportion 148

4.4 Estimation of a Population Odds Ratio 152

4.5 Estimation of a Population Correlation Coefficient 155

4.6 A Note on Computation 158

Exercises 158

5 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing 171

5.1 Basic Concepts 172

5.1.1 Hypothesis Tests 173

5.1.2 Statistical Evidence 174

5.1.3 Errors 174

5.2 Analogies 177

5.2.1 Trials by Jury 177

5.2.2 Medical Screening Tests 177

5.2.3 Common Expectations 178

5.3 Summaries and Conclusions 179

5.3.1 Rejection Region 179

5.3.2 Relationship to Confidence Intervals 182

Exercises 183

6 Comparison of Population Proportions 186

6.1 One-Sample Problem with Binary Data 186

6.2 Analysis of Pair-Matched Binary Data 188

6.3 Comparison of Two Proportions 191

6.4 The Mantel-Haenszel Method 196

6.5 Computational Aids 201

Exercises 203

7 Comparison of Population Means 215

7.1 One-Sample Problem with Continuous Data 215

7.2 Analysis of Pair-Matched Data 217

7.3 Comparison of Two Means 221

7.4 One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 225

7.5 Computational Aids 229

Exercises 231

8 Regression Analysis 243

8.1 Simple Regression Analysis 244

8.1.1 The Simple Linear Regression Model 244

8.1.2 The Scatter Diagram 244

8.1.3 Meaning of Regression Parameters 245

8.1.4 Estimation of Parameters 246

8.1.5 Testing for Independence 250

8.1.6 Analysis of Variance Approach 252

8.2 Multiple Regression Analysis 254

8.2.1 Regression Model with Several Independent Variables 254

8.2.2 Meaning of Regression Parameters 255

8.2.3 Effect Modifications 255

8.2.4 Polynomial Regression 256

8.2.5 Estimation of Parameters 257

8.2.6 Analysis of Variance Approach 257

8.2.7 Testing Hypotheses in Multiple Linear Regression 258

8.3 Graphical and Computational Aids 262

Exercises 264

Bibliography 271

Appendices 275

A Table of Random Numbers 276

B Area Under the Standard Normal Curve 277

C Percentiles of the t Distributions 279

D Percentiles of Chi-square Distributions 279

E Percentiles of the F Distributions 280

Index 303

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