Health Care Data And Sas / Edition 1

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Finally! A book that draws together tried-and-true techniques for using SAS to work with health care data. New and experienced SAS programmers and analysts working in health care data analysis will find Health Care Data and SAS invaluable in their daily professional lives. Health care data can be diverse and complicated. With this book, you will learn how to use SAS to access the information within the data. A terrific primer for new health care analysts and a reference for long-time practitioners, this book, written by Marge Scerbo, Craig Dickstein, and Alan Wilson, defines the types of health care data and explores a wide range of tasks, including reading, validating, and manipulating the data, and producing reports. The combination of basic information and tricks of the trade make this a must-have resource for health care programmers and analysts.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781580258654
  • Publisher: SAS Institute Inc.
  • Publication date: 3/15/2001
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 288
  • Product dimensions: 7.50 (w) x 9.25 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Acknowledgments xiii
Chapter 1 Health Care Data
Introduction 1
People and Health Care 2
Recipients/Users/Patients 2
Providers 3
Health Care Language 4
Diagnoses 4
Treatment Protocols 5
Combinations of Diagnoses and Treatments 5
Types of Administrative Files 5
HCFA-1500 6
Pharmacy 6
UB-92 6
Claims and Encounters 7
Conclusion 8
Chapter 2 Health Care Codes
Introduction 9
The Coding of Diagnoses 11
ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Codes 11
ICD-10-CM Diagnoses 15
Diagnostic Related Groups 15
Major Diagnostic Categories 19
The Coding of Procedures 21
ICD-9-CM Surgical Procedures 22
Level I CPT codes 24
Level II HCPCS 27
Level III Local Codes 28
Pharmacy-Specific Codes 29
National Drug Codes 29
Therapeutic Class 30
Generic Product Packaging Codes 33
Billing Codes or Revenue Codes 33
Location of Codes and Descriptors 35
ICD-9 Diagnosis Codes 35
DRGs 37
ICD-9 Surgical Procedures 37
CPT, HCPCS, and Local Codes 37
Billing or Revenue Codes 37
Short Example of Code Usage 38
Conclusion 39
Chapter 3 Data Forms, Layouts, and Files
Introduction 41
Data Forms 42
HCFA-1500 42
Pharmacy 45
UB-92 45
Data Layouts 49
HCFA-1500 File Layout 50
Pharmacy File Layout 52
UB-92 File Layout 52
Data Files 53
Source Data Format 53
HCFA-1500 Data File 53
Pharmacy Data File 54
UB-92 Data File 55
Data in Other Formats 56
Conclusion 57
Chapter 4 Reading the Data
Introduction 59
Step 1 Write the SAS Code 60
Reading the Variables 62
Step 2 Test the Code 65
Step 3 Correct the Code 66
Diagnoses (Dx) and Solutions (Rx) to the Errors 67
Step 4 Re-Test the Code 68
Step 5 Check the Results 69
Printing the Data 70
Diagnoses (Dx) and Solutions (Rx) to the Errors 70
Step 6 Correct the Code 71
Diagnoses (Dx) and Solutions (Rx) to Missing Dates 71
Creating User-Defined Formats and Informats 72
Step 7 Check the Results 73
Step 8 Enhance the Code 73
Comments 73
The LENGTH Statement 74
The FORMAT Statement 75
Variable Labels 75
Pharmacy Files: New ideas 76
UB-92 Files: New Ideas 77
ARRAY Statements 77
Conditional Selection upon Input 79
Putting It All Together 81
Reading SAS Data Sets 82
Data in Other Formats 83
Working with Data and Files across Years 84
Conclusion 85
Chapter 5 Validating the Data
Introduction 87
The Data Content 88
The CONTENTS Procedure 89
Viewing the Data 90
Quantity: Volume of Data 92
Services 94
Visits 95
Users 97
Selected Populations or Sub-groups 97
Discharges and Stays 100
Charges and Payments 102
Quantity: Completeness 102
Frequencies 103
Frequency of Missing Values 104
Dates 105
Numeric Fields 106
Quality: Accuracy 108
Chart Review 108
Frequency of Codes 108
Two-Way Tables 110
Means 111
Comparative Data Sources 112
Quality: Clinical Relevance 113
Conclusion 113
Chapter 6 Manipulating the Data
Introduction 116
Operators 116
Missing Values 118
Exclusion of Selected Observations 118
Calculations 119
Date Formats and Functions 120
The MDY Function 120
The TODAY Function 120
Parsing Dates 121
Date Formats 121
Numeric Functions 122
The INT Function 122
The TRUNC and ROUND Functions 123
Character Functions 123
The COMPRESS Function 124
The DEQUOTE Function 124
The SUBSTR Function 125
The SCAN and INDEX Functions 125
The CONTAINS Operator in Where Statements 126
The COLON Operator Modifier 127
Other Character Functions 129
Creating new variables 129
Character-to-Numeric Recording 130
Numeric-to-Character Recoding 131
More about Formats 132
Stratification and Aggregation 132
Subset and Selection 133
Reporting Options 134
Transforming Data Sets 135
Using Arrays 137
More Macros 139
Conclusion 141
Chapter 7 Combining the Data
Introduction 143
Data Structures and Terminology 144
Concatenation and Appending 145
Study Design 145
Concatenation: The Set Statement 146
Appending 147
Interleaving 150
Merging Data 153
One-to-One Match Merge 153
Many-to-One Match Merge 158
Many-to-Many Match Merge 159
Other Types of Merges 165
Conclusion 165
Chapter 8 Analysis and Reporting: The Basics
Introduction 167
Basic Statistical Concepts 168
Variable Types 168
Independent versus Dependent 169
Population versus Sample 170
The Normal Distribution 171
SAS Procedures 171
Descriptive Statistics 172
Measures of Central Tendency 173
Measures of Variability 173
Useful Procedures 174
Prescription for Use 179
Data Summarization 179
Summary Statistics 179
Row and Column Totals 184
Other Useful Procedures 187
Prescription for Use 187
Analytics 187
Measures of Association 188
Comparing Population Means 189
Other Useful Procedures 190
Prescription for Use 191
Information Presentation 192
Tables 192
Plots, Charts, and Maps 194
Other Useful Procedures 196
Prescription for Use 196
Conclusion 196
Chapter 9 Case Study
Introduction 198
Study Design 198
Data Files 199
Initial Analytic Steps 201
Identification of ER visits 201
Preliminary Steps 202
Demographic Field Identification 202
Algorithm for Age Calculation 202
Formatting Specifications 203
Other Key Points 203
Comparative Frequencies 203
Study Design Modifications 205
SAS Programs 205
Step 1 Identify Format Library and Create New Formats 206
Step 2 Build SAS Macros to Access Different Years 206
Step 3 Sort and Subset the Physician Claims Files 206
Step 4 Sort and Subset the Outpatient Claims Files 208
Step 5 Merge the Claims Files and Enrollment Files 208
Step 6 Summarize the Claims Dollars 209
Step 7 Create a Data Set to Store Charges 210
Step 8 Sort to Unduplicate Dates in Claims Files 211
Step 9 Merge the Visit Data Sets 211
Step 10 Produce a Report of Top 20 Diagnoses 212
Step 11 Produce Summarized Tables 213
Step 12 End the SAS Macro and Pass the Parameters 213
Results 214
Output Data Sets 214
More about_TYPE_ 215
Tables 216
Graphs 217
Further Studies 220
Conclusion 221
Chapter 10 The Future of Health Care Data
Introduction 223
Future Information Flow 224
HIPAA: Electronic Data Transmittal 224
Standard Formats 225
Electronic Data Submissions 227
National Provider Identifier (NPI) 227
Electronic Death Registration Systems (EDRS) 227
Future Coding Systems 228
ICD-10 228
Current System: New Initiatives 230
ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS 230
Future Technology 230
Internet Health Care 230
Medical Records Privacy 231
Future Health Care Economics 231
Risk Adjustment 232
Some Predictive Models 233
Pharmacy-Based Models 234
AIDS Risk Adjustment 234
Health Care Data and the SAS System 234
Appendix 237
Glossary 245
References 253
Index 255
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