Health, Disease, and Illness: Concepts in Medicine / Edition 1

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Overview

Drapetomania was a little-known disease found among black slaves in the United States in the 1850s. The main symptom, according to medical opinion? The desire to run away from slave masters. In earlier centuries gout was understood as a metabolic disease of the affluent, so much so that it became a badge of upper-crust honor--and a medical excuse to avoid hard work. Today, is there such a thing as mental illness, or is mental illness just a myth? Is Alzheimer's really a disease? What is menopause? A biological phenomenon, or a social construction?

In this successor volume to the 1981 Concepts of Health and Disease the three editors, Caplan, McCartney, and Sisti, explore how society understands and determines health, disease, and illness. The 28 classic essays are divided into four parts: Historical Discussions; Characterizing Health, Disease, and Illness; Clinical Applications of Health and Disease; and Normalcy, Genetic Disease, and Enhancement: The Future of the Concepts of Health and Disease. Drawing on a wide variety of sources--from Galen (150 CE) to Maimonedes (1150) to contemporary bioethicists and philosophers--the editors demonstrate how concepts of health and disease evolve from generation to generation--and remain, despite claims of scientific objectivity, culture and value laden.

Foreword by Edmund Pellegrino, M.D., author of numerous books on philosophy and medicine.

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Editorial Reviews

From The Critics
Reviewer: David M. Wallace, MD (Monmouth Medical Center)
Description: This comprehensive anthology, both modern and ancient, integrates diverse opinions about our concepts of health and disease. In effect, it brings together the philospophy of medicine and bioethics, and describes the ever- changing interrelationships and dependencies between the two fields.
Purpose: The book's purpose is eloquently expressed by Dr. Edmund Pelligrino in the foreword of the book. He states that philosophical discourse on concepts of disease and health are necessary to justify our moral choices. When concepts are seriously challenged, we are threatened with intellectual and moral disorientation. Medicine today is showing signs of this disorientation as there is no longer unanimity about its goals, meanings, or moral compass points. In addition, we are now uncertain about what constitutes normalcy, and about the boundaries where health ends and disease begins. Through this anthology, the merging of philosophy and medicine are deemed essential to the understanding of the complexities of modern day medicine. These are worthy objectives that I believe the contributors and editors have duly met.
Audience: This book is written for anyone interested in the study of the philosophy of medicine. It well may be that it becomes a preferred reference for medical students and residents in training. Perhaps its greatest worth could be for those practitioners who feel they need to rediscover their way in the complex world of medical practice. Under Dr. Caplan's expertise, this treatise is unrivaled it its authoritative direction.
Features: The book is divided into four parts with each containing six to eight selections written by the contributors. The 1st part deals with historical discussions. The report by Samuel Cartwright, MD on the "Diseases and Peculiarities of the Negro Race" is especially compelling as it relates to the prejudices that existed among physicians of the South in the midst of the Civil War. One can only wonder how these medical opinions persist today with relationship to health care disparities among minorities. The 2nd part discusses the characterizations of health and illness from "On the Distinction Between Disease and Illness" to "Diagnosing and Defining Disease." In part 3, the selection on "The Politics of Menopause" will raise eyebrows as the disease was defined and characterized by the male dominated profession of medicine in the 1960s. Part 4 deals with genetic disease and enhancement therapies and the future we may have at our disposal as it relates to positive and negative eugenics. Although not a shortcoming, the editors could have chosen other topics or the topics presented could have been flavored with a different point of view.
Assessment: This book is an excellent compilation of the concepts of health and disease by experts in the field of philosophy and bioethics. It should prompt and reinvigorate more scholars to study and publish on the interrelationship between the philosophy of medicine and bioethics.

5 Stars! from Doody
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781589010147
  • Publisher: Georgetown University Press
  • Publication date: 4/28/2004
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 326
  • Sales rank: 479,248
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Arthur L. Caplan is Emmanuel and Robert Hart Professor of Bioethics, Chair of the Department of Medical Ethics, and director of the Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania.

James J. McCartney is associate professor in the department of philosophy at Villanova University, an associate fellow at the Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania, and an adjunct professor at the Villanova University School of Law.

Dominic A. Sisti is a researcher at the Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania, associate ethicist at Holy Redeemer Health System, and adjunct instructor at Villanova University.

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Table of Contents

Foreword: Renewing Medicine's Basic Concepts Edmund D. Pellegrino

Part I: Historical Discussions of Health, Disease, and Illness

1. From "On the Natural Faculties II, VIII" Galen

2. Diseases of the Soul Maimonides

3. Prometheus's Vulture: The Renaissance Fashioning of Gout Roy Porter and G.S. Rousseau

4. Report on the Diseases and Physical Peculiarities of the Negro Race Samuel A. Cartwright

5. The Normal and the Pathological -- Introduction to the Problem Georges Canguilhem

6. The Myth of Mental Illness Thomas S. Szasz

7. The Need for a New Medical Model: A Challenge for Biomedicine George L. Engel

8. When Do Symptoms Become a Disease? Robert A. Aronowitz Part II: Characterizing Health, Disease, and Illness

9. On the Distinction between Disease and Illness Christopher Boorse

10. Malady: A New Treatment of Disease K. Danner Clouser, Charles M. Culver, and Bernard Gert

11. Health: A Comprehensive Concept Roberto Mordacci and Richard Sobel

12. The Distinction between Mental and Physical Illness R. E. Kendell

13. The "Unnaturalness" of Aging -- Give Me Reason to Live! Arthur L. Caplan

14. Diagnosing and Defining Disease Winston Chiong

Part III: Clinical Applications of Concepts of Health and Disease: Controversies/Consensus

15. "Ambiguous Sex" -- or Ambivalent Medicine? Alice Domurat Dreger

16. The Discovery of Hyperkinesis: Notes on the Medicalization of Deviant Behavior Peter Conrad

17. Suffering and the Social Construction of Illness: The Delegitimation of Illness Experience in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Norma C. Ware

18. The Premenstrual Syndrome: A Brief History John T. E. Richardson

19. The Politics of Menopause: The "Discovery" Of A Deficiency Disease Frances B. McCrea

20. Aging, Culture, and the Framing of Alzheimer Disease Martha Holstein

Part IV: Normalcy, Genetic Disease, and Enhancement: The Future of the Concepts of Health and Disease21. The Medicalization of Aesthetic Surgery Sander Gilman

22. The Quest for Medical Normalcy -- Who Needs It? George C. Williams

23. The Concept of Genetic Disease David Magnus

24. Concepts of Disease after the Human Genome Project Eric T. Juengst

25.From "Enhancing Cognition in the Intellectually Intact" Peter J. Whitehouse, Eric T. Juengst, Maxwell Mehlman, and Thomas H. Murray

26. Treatment, Enhancement, and The Ethics of Neurotherapeutics Paul Root Wolpe

27. What's Morally Wrong with Eugenics? Arthur L. Caplan

AcknowledgmentsContributorsPermissions and Credits Index

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