Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion

Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion

by Committee to Assess the Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion, National Research Council
     
 

Perchlorate—a powerful oxidant used in solid rocket fuels by the military and aerospace industry—has been detected in public drinking water supplies of over 11 million people at concentrations of at least 4 parts per billion (ppb). High doses of perchlorate can decrease thyroid hormone production by inhibiting the uptake of iodide by the thyroid. Thyroid… See more details below

Overview

Perchlorate—a powerful oxidant used in solid rocket fuels by the military and aerospace industry—has been detected in public drinking water supplies of over 11 million people at concentrations of at least 4 parts per billion (ppb). High doses of perchlorate can decrease thyroid hormone production by inhibiting the uptake of iodide by the thyroid. Thyroid hormones are critical for normal growth and development of the central nervous system of fetuses and infants. This report evaluates the potential health effects of perchlorate and the scientific underpinnings of the 2002 draft risk assessment issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

The report finds that the body can compensate for iodide deficiency, and that iodide uptake would likely have to be reduced by at least 75% for months or longer for adverse health effects, such as hypothryroidism, to occur. The report recommends using clinical studies of iodide uptake in humans as the basis for determining a reference dose rather than using studies of adverse health effects in rats that serve as EPA’s basis. The report suggests that daily ingestion of 0.0007 milligrams of perchlorate per kilograms of body weight—an amount more than 20 times the reference dose proposed by EPA—should not threaten the health of even the most sensitive populations.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780309095686
Publisher:
National Academies Press
Publication date:
04/25/2005
Pages:
276
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

1Introduction19
2The thyroid and disruption of thyroid function in humans35
3Epidemiologic studies of occupational and environmental exposures to perchlorate75
4Animal studies115
5Risk characterization of perchlorate164
6Research recommendations182
App. ABiographical information on the committee to assess the health implications of perchlorate ingestion199
App. BGlossary205
App. CParticipants at public sessions213
App. DSensitivity of perchlorate-induced iodide uptake inhibition to serum iodide concentrations216
App. EPhysiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling219

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