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A historic collection of perceptive tales from a luminary of nineteenth-century literature
First published in 1904, The Heart of Happy Hollow features sixteen short stories that provide rare glimpses into the lives of African Americans after the Civil War. Through characters ranging from schemers to preachers, Paul Laurence Dunbar crafted a rare snapshot of long-lost communities and their poignant ...
A historic collection of perceptive tales from a luminary of nineteenth-century literature
First published in 1904, The Heart of Happy Hollow features sixteen short stories that provide rare glimpses into the lives of African Americans after the Civil War. Through characters ranging from schemers to preachers, Paul Laurence Dunbar crafted a rare snapshot of long-lost communities and their poignant sensibilities. An author who achieved remarkable versatility, he draws on language that is by turns folksy and formal, putting forth controversial vernacular dialects as easily as he delivers a hauntingly poetic scene.
In this collection, readers meet an influential entrepreneur who must navigate a treacherous political landscape; a Southern spiritual leader who must learn to accept the mores of his son, who was educated in the North; a reporter who restores hope in Santa Claus to a group of destitute siblings; and a host of other unique men and women giving voice to timeless themes.
Dunbar’s work has deservingly experienced a recent revival among commercial and scholarly audiences alike, and noted scholar Eleanor Alexander, author of the critically acclaimed biography Lyrics of Sunshine and Shadow: The Courtship and Marriage of Paul Laurence Dunbar and Alice Ruth Moore further contextualizes Dunbar’s contributions to American letters. A captivating read, The Heart of Happy Hollow will introduce more book lovers to this revered storyteller and visionary.
The law is usually supposed to be a stern mistress, not to be lightly wooed, and yielding only to the most ardent pursuit. But even law, like love, sits more easily on some natures than on others.
This was the case with Mr. Robinson Asbury. Mr. Asbury had started life as a bootblack in the growing town of Cadgers. From this he had risen one step and become porter and messenger in a barber-shop. This rise fired his ambition, and he was not content until he had learned to use the shears and the razor and had a chair of his own. From this, in a man of Robinson's temperament, it was only a step to a shop of his own, and he placed it where it would do the most good.
Fully one-half of the population of Cadgers was composed of Negroes, and with their usual tendency to colonise, a tendency encouraged, and in fact compelled, by circumstances, they had gathered into one part of the town. Here in alleys, and streets as dirty and hardly wider, they thronged like ants.
It was in this place that Mr. Asbury set up his shop, and he won the hearts of his prospective customers by putting up the significant sign, "Equal Rights Barber-Shop." This legend was quite unnecessary, because there was only one race about, to patronise the place. But it was a delicate sop to the people's vanity, and it served its purpose.
Asbury came to be known as a clever fellow, and his business grew. The shop really became a sort of club, and, on Saturday nights especially, was the gathering-place of the men of the whole Negro quarter. He kept the illustrated and race journals there, and those who cared neither to talk norlisten to someone else might see pictured the doings of high society in very short skirts or read in the Negro papers how Miss Boston had entertained Miss Blueford to tea on such and such an afternoon. Also, he kept the policy returns, which was wise, if not moral.
It was his wisdom rather more than his morality that made the party managers after a while cast their glances toward him as a man who might be useful to their interests. It would be well to have a man—a shrewd, powerful man—down in that part of the town who could carry his people's vote in his vest pocket, and who at any time its delivery might be needed, could hand it over without hesitation. Asbury seemed that man, and they settled upon him. They gave him money, and they gave him power and patronage. He took it all silently and he carried out his bargain faithfully. His hands and his lips alike closed tightly when there was anything within them. It was not long before he found himself the big Negro of the district and, of necessity, of the town. The time came when, at a critical moment, the managers saw that they had not reckoned without their host in choosing this barber of the black district as the leader of his people.
Now, so much success must have satisfied any other man. But in many ways Mr. Asbury was unique. For a long time he himself had done very little shaving—except of notes, to keep his hand in. His time had been otherwise employed. In the evening hours he had been wooing the coquettish Dame Law, and, wonderful to say, she had yielded easily to his advances.
It was against the advice of his friends that he asked for admission to the bar. They felt that he could do more good in the place where he was.
"You see, Robinson," said old Judge Davis, "it's just like this: If you're not admitted, it'll hurt you with the people; if you are admitted, you'll move uptown to an office and get out of touch with them."
Asbury smiled an inscrutable smile. Then he whispered something into the judge's ear that made the old man wrinkle from his neck up with appreciative smiles.
"Asbury," he said, "you are—you are—well, you ought to be white, that's all. When we find a black man like you we send him to State's prison. If you were white, you'd go to the Senate."
The Negro laughed confidently.
He was admitted to the bar soon after, whether by merit or by connivance is not to be told.
"Now he will move uptown," said the black community. "Well, that's the way with a coloured man when he gets a start."
But they did not know Asbury Robinson yet. He was a man of surprises, and they were destined to disappointment. He did not move uptown. He built an office in a small open space next his shop, and there hung out his shingle.
"I will never desert the people who have done so much to elevate me," said Mr. Asbury.
"I will live among them and I will die among them."
This was a strong card for the barber-lawyer. The people seized upon the statement as expressing a nobility of an altogether unique brand.
They held a mass meeting and indorsed him. They made resolutions that extolled him, and the Negro band came around and serenaded him, playing various things in varied time.
All this was very sweet to Mr. Asbury, and the party managers chuckled with satisfaction and said, "That Asbury, that Asbury!"
Now there is a fable extant of a man who tried to please everybody, and his failure is a matter of record. Robinson Asbury was not more successful. But be it said that his ill success was due to no fault or shortcoming of his.
For a long time his growing power had been looked upon with disfavour by the coloured law firm of Bingo & Latchett. Both Mr. Bingo and Mr. Latchett themselves aspired to be Negro leaders in Cadgers, and they were delivering Emancipation Day orations and riding at the head of processions when Mr. Asbury was blacking boots. Is it any wonder, then, that they viewed with alarm his sudden rise? They kept their counsel, however, and treated with him, for it was best. They allowed him his scope without open revolt until the day upon which he hung out his shingle. This was the last straw. They could stand no more. Asbury had stolen their other chances from them, and now he was poaching upon the last of their preserves. So Mr. Bingo and Mr. Latchett put their heads together to plan the downfall of their common enemy.
The plot was deep and embraced the formation of an opposing faction made up of the best Negroes of the town. It would have looked too much like what it was for the gentlemen to show themselves in the matter, and so they took into their confidence Mr. Isaac Morton, the principal of the coloured school, and it was under his ostensible leadership that the new faction finally came into being.
Mr. Morton was really an innocent young man, and he had ideals which should never have been exposed to the air. When the wily confederates came to him with their plan he believed that his worth had been recognised, and at last he was to be what Nature destined him for—a leader.
The better class of Negroes—by that is meant those who were particularly envious of Asbury's success—flocked to the new man's standard. But whether the race be white or black, political virtue is always in a minority, so Asbury could afford to smile at the force arrayed against him.
The new faction met together and resolved. They resolved, among other things, that Mr. Asbury was an enemy to his race and a menace to civilisation. They decided that he should be abolished; but, as they couldn't get out an injunction against him, and as he had the whole undignified but still voting black belt behind him, he went serenely on his way.
"They're after you hot and heavy, Asbury," said one of his friends to him.
"Oh, yes," was the reply, "they're after me, but after a while I'll get so far away that they'll be running in front."
"It's all the best people, they say."
"Yes. Well, it's good to be one of the best people, but your vote only counts one just the same."
The time came, however, when Mr. Asbury's theory was put to the test. The Cadgerites celebrated the first of January as Emancipation Day. On this day there was a large procession, with speechmaking in the afternoon and fireworks at night. It was the custom to concede the leadership of the coloured people of the town to the man who managed to lead the procession. For two years past this honour had fallen, of course, to Robinson Asbury, and there had been no disposition on the part of anybody to try conclusions with him.
Mr. Morton's faction changed all this. When Asbury went to work to solicit contributions for the celebration, he suddenly became aware that he had a fight upon his hands. All the better-class Negroes were staying out of it. The next thing he knew was that plans were on foot for a rival demonstration.
"Oh," he said to himself, "that's it, is it? Well, if they want a fight they can have it."
He had a talk with the party managers, and he had another with Judge Davis.
"All I want is a little lift, judge," he said, "and I'll make 'em think the sky has turned loose and is vomiting niggers."
The judge believed that he could do it. So did the party managers. Asbury got his lift. Emancipation Day came.
There were two parades. At least, there was one parade and the shadow of another. Asbury's, however, was not the shadow. There was a great deal of substance about it—substance made up of many people, many banners, and numerous bands. He did not have the best people. Indeed, among his cohorts there were a good many of the pronounced rag-tag and bobtail. But he had noise and numbers. In such cases, nothing more is needed. The success of Asbury's side of the affair did everything to confirm his friends in their good opinion of him.
When he found himself defeated, Mr. Silas Bingo saw that it would be policy to placate his rival's just anger against him. He called upon him at his office the day after the celebration.
"Well, Asbury," he said, "you beat us, didn't you?"
"It wasn't a question of beating," said the other calmly. "It was only an inquiry as to who were the people—the few or the many."
"Well, it was well done, and you've shown that you are a manager. I confess that I haven't always thought that you were doing the wisest thing in living down here and catering to this class of people when you might, with your ability, to be much more to the better class."
"What do they base their claims of being better on?"
"Oh, there ain't any use discussing that. We can't get along without you, we see that. So I, for one, have decided to work with you for harmony."
"Harmony. Yes, that's what we want."
"If I can do anything to help you at any time, why you have only to command me."
"I am glad to find such a friend in you. Be sure, if I ever need you, Bingo, I'll call on you."
"And I'll be ready to serve you."
Asbury smiled when his visitor was gone. He smiled, and knitted his brow. "I wonder what Bingo's got up his sleeve," he said. "He'll bear watching."
It may have been pride at his triumph, it may have been gratitude at his helpers, but Asbury went into the ensuing campaign with reckless enthusiasm. He did the most daring things for the party's sake. Bingo, true to his promise, was ever at his side ready to serve him. Finally, association and immunity made danger less fearsome; the rival no longer appeared a menace.
With the generosity born of obstacles overcome, Asbury determined to forgive Bingo and give him a chance. He let him in on a deal, and from that time they worked amicably together until the election came and passed.
It was a close election and many things had had to be done, but there were men there ready and waiting to do them. They were successful, and then the first cry of the defeated party was, as usual, "Fraud! Fraud!" The cry was taken up by the jealous, the disgruntled, and the virtuous.
Someone remembered how two years ago the registration books had been stolen. It was known upon good authority that money had been freely used. Men held up their hands in horror at the suggestion that the Negro vote had been juggled with, as if that were a new thing. From their pulpits ministers denounced the machine and bade their hearers rise and throw off the yoke of a corrupt municipal government. One of those sudden fevers of reform had taken possession of the town and threatened to destroy the successful party.
They began to look around them. They must purify themselves. They must give the people some tangible evidence of their own yearnings after purity. They looked around them for a sacrifice to lay upon the altar of municipal reform. Their eyes fell upon Mr. Bingo. No, he was not big enough. His blood was too scant to wash away the political stains. Then they looked into each other's eyes and turned their gaze away to let it fall upon Mr. Asbury. They really hated to do it. But there must be a scapegoat. The god from the Machine commanded them to slay him.
Robinson Asbury was charged with many crimes—with all that he had committed and some that he had not. When Mr. Bingo saw what was afoot he threw himself heart and soul into the work of his old rival's enemies. He was of incalculable use to them.
Judge Davis refused to have anything to do with the matter. But in spite of his disapproval it went on. Asbury was indicted and tried. The evidence was all against him, and no one gave more damaging testimony than his friend, Mr. Bingo. The judge's charge was favourable to the defendant, but the current of popular opinion could not be entirely stemmed. The jury brought in a verdict of guilty.
"Before I am sentenced, judge, I have a statement to make to the court. It will take less than ten minutes."
"Go on, Robinson," said the judge kindly.
Asbury started, in a monotonous tone, a recital that brought the prosecuting attorney to his feet in a minute. The judge waved him down, and sat transfixed by a sort of fascinated horror as the convicted man went on. The before-mentioned attorney drew a knife and started for the prisoner's dock. With difficulty he was restrained. A dozen faces in the court-room were red and pale by turns.
|2||One Christmas at Shiloh||21|
|3||The mission of Mr. Scatters||29|
|4||A matter of doctrine||45|
|5||Old Abe's conversion||53|
1. What is the importance of gossip as a cultural practice for communities in The Heart of Happy Hollow? In what ways is gossip detrimental to the communities presented in the collection? How is it beneficial?
2. In “The Scapegoat,” when Mr. Asbury is visibly involved in politics, he faces treachery and persecution. It is only when he publicly disavows politics that he gains untouchable, unthreatened power. What might the author be suggesting about the nature of political “power”? Is Asbury’s strategy–to secretly manipulate the political power structure, while outwardly disavowing politics–a legitimate, viable political stance? Or must one be vocal and visible to be political? Is the quiet but powerful Asbury victorious by the end of “The Scapegoat”?
3. As he stands trial for thievery in “The Mission of Mr. Scatters,” the title character tries to cast some blame on the community of Miltonville. In his extremely eloquent (and equally deceptive) defense speech, he charges the entire town with its own share of wrongdoing. Though Scatters is the only person on trial, what wrongs have been committed by Isaac Jackson? Martha Jackson? The townspeople? In what ways does the author place these individuals on trial? Why are they, too, guilty?
4. In many of the stories, including “A Matter of Doctrine,” the “truth” is something to be ornamented, to be embellished, to be remolded to suit the situation–almost like a song in the mouth of a gifted singer, or a piece of clothing draped upon a stylish young woman. Discuss three instances of embellished truth in The Heart of Happy Hollow. What separates these embellished truths from outright lies? Is there even a difference? How do individuals justify these embellished truths and how do they distinguish them from lies?
5. In “Old Abe’s Conversion,” the author describes two versions of religion: Abram Dixon’s version of religion, which is based on inciting emotion and creating spectacle; and Robert Dixon’s, which is based on quietly invoking reason. Does the author endorse one over the other?
6. Why do you think Dunbar constructs “The Race Question” as a monologue rather than a narrative? What is the effect? Do you think it would be more or less effective as a narrative?
7. Dunbar depicts several patriarchal black men, among them Reverend Dixon in “Old Abe’s Conversion” and Jeremiah Anderson in “The Wisdom of Silence.” And yet, these men are often enlightened by the wills and insights of women and children. Do you think Dunbar is critiquing patriarchy? Why or why not?
8. In stories like “The Triumph of Ol’ Mis’ Pease” and “Cahoots,” individuals are assigned names or titles that reflect their experiences and which seem to determine their lives. Why is the act of naming so important, so decisive, in The Heart of Happy Hollow? As many of the people who populate these stories are former slaves, what special historical significance might naming hold?
9. Considering that James Buford fails to steal the old widow’s money in “The Promoter,” who do you think will receive the pension after all? If it does go to “white folks”–in a power structure where whites actively and systematically disenfranchise black people–is the situation really any better than it would have been with the money in the hands of Buford? Is justice truly served?
10. In trying to convince Aunt Dicey to side with him, Buford declares: “we col’red people has got to stan’ together.” Instead, Dicey turns him in to the deputy, and lives contentedly thereafter in the home of a white lawyer, whom she happily serves. How much is this a story about racial allegiance or nonallegiance? Are Buford’s words simply the last-minute plea of a desperate man, or do they have some deeper resonance?
11. In “The Wisdom of Silence,” Jeremiah Anderson’s pride enables him to boldly leave his former master and achieve exceptional success and independence. And yet, it is Jeremiah’s proud boasting that leads envious foes to burn down his property. What role does pride play in empowering and/or endangering the lives of newly emancipated slaves in The Heart of Happy Hollow? Does Dunbar more closely align pride with bravery or with haughtiness?
12. Is it better for Jeremiah Anderson to do business with a patronizing former master or with greedy moneylenders? Is Samuel Brabant presented as the good and right alternative to the lenders, or simply the lesser of two evils?
13. What is the effect of formal education upon the community members in The Heart of Happy Hollow? How does formal education positively or negatively transform members of these communities? Does Dunbar seem to have a consistent stance on the advantage or disadvantage of formal education? Is he ambivalent?
14. What is the effect of the use of vernacular language, as it is phonetically transcribed, throughout The Heart of Happy Hollow? Does it lend “authenticity” to the text? Is it jarring? Do you think the author is successful in his use of vernacular language, especially as it contrasts with his own narrative voice?
15. A debate concerning the social obligation of the African-American artist raged during the Harlem Renaissance and beyond. Some believed that black artists bore an obligation to portray black people in a positive and flattering way that would uplift the race–particularly in the eyes and opinions of whites. Though Dunbar predates the Renaissance, do you believe he is somehow motivated or inhibited by a desire to impress white readers? Does he seek to inflame them? Or is he concerned with white readers at all? Who do you believe is the intended audience, if any, for this collection? And finally, where do you stand in the debate?