Heat Transfer Applications for the Practicing Engineer / Edition 1

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This book serves as a training tool for individuals in industry and academia involved with heat transfer applications. Although the literature is inundated with texts emphasizing theory and theoretical derivations, the goal of this book is to present the subject of heat transfer from a strictly pragmatic point of view. The book is divided into four Parts: Introduction, Principles, Equipment Design Procedures and Applications, and ABET-related Topics. The first Part provides a series of chapters concerned with introductory topics that are required when solving most engineering problems, including those in heat transfer. The second Part of the book is concerned with heat transfer principles. Topics that receive treatment include Steady-state Heat Conduction, Unsteady-state Heat Conduction, Forced Convection, Free Convection, Radiation, Boiling and Condensation, and Cryogenics. Part three (considered the heart of the book) addresses heat transfer equipment design procedures and applications. In addition to providing a detailed treatment of the various types of heat exchangers, this part also examines the impact of entropy calculations on exchanger design, and operation, maintenance and inspection (OM&I), plus refractory and insulation effects. The concluding Part of the text examines ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) related topics of concern, including economies and finance, numerical methods, open-ended problems, ethics, environmental management, and safety and accident management.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“It provides an excellent in-depth analysis of many exchanger designs, giving the reader an understanding of critical design parameters and many rule-of-thumb recommendations.”  (IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, 1 May 2013)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470643723
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 11/15/2011
  • Series: Essential Engineering Calculations Series, #4
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 664
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.40 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Louis Theodore EngScD, a professor of chemical engineering for fifty years, is the author of many Wiley books, including Fluid Flow for the Practicing Chemical Engineer, Thermodynamics for the Practicing Engineer, and Mass Transfer Operations for the Practicing Engineer. He is also a contributor and Section Editor to Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook and coauthor of Introduction to Hazardous Waste Incineration, Second Edition, which is also published by Wiley. Dr. Theodore is currently a consultant to Theodore Tutorials, located in East Williston, New York.

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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Introductory Comments xvii

Part One Introduction

1. History of Heat Transfer 3

Introduction 3

Peripheral Equipment 4

Recent History 5

References 6

2. History of Chemical Engineering: Transport Phenomena vs Unit Operations 7

Introduction 7

History of Chemical Engineering 8

Transport Phenomena vs Unit Operations 10

What is Engineering? 12

References 13

3. Process Variables 15

Introduction 15

Units and Dimensional Consistency 16

Key Terms and Definitions 19

Fluids 19

Temperature 19

Pressure 20

Moles and Molecular Weights 22

Mass and Volume 23

Viscosity 25

Heat Capacity 27

Thermal Conductivity 28

Thermal Diffusivity 30

Reynolds Number 30

Kinetic Energy 31

Potential Energy 32

Determination of Dimensionless Groups 33

References 36

4. Conservation Laws 37

Introduction 37

The Conservation Laws 38

The Conservation Law for Momentum 38

The Conservation Law for Mass 40

The Conservation Law for Energy 45

References 54

5. Gas Laws 55

Introduction 55

Boyle’s and Charles’ Laws 56

The Ideal Gas Law 57

Standard Conditions 60

Partial Pressure and Partial Volume 63

Non-Ideal Gas Behavior 65

References 65

6. Heat Exchanger Pipes and Tubes 67

Introduction 67

Pipes 67

Tubes 73

Valves and Fittings 75

Valves 75

Fittings 77

Noncircular Conduits 78

Flow Considerations 80

References 83

Part Two Principles

7. Steady-State Heat Conduction 87

Introduction 87

Fourier’s Law 87

Conductivity Resistances 90

Microscopic Approach 99

Applications 102

References 114

8. Unsteady-State Heat Conduction 115

Introduction 115

Classification of Unsteady-State Heat Conduction Processes 116

Microscopic Equations 117

Applications 118

References 130

9. Forced Convection 131

Introduction 131

Convective Resistances 134

Heat Transfer Coefficients: Qualitative Information 137

Heat Transfer Coefficients: Quantitative Information 138

Flow Past a Flat Plate 141

Flow in a Circular Tube 146

Liquid Metal Flow in a Circular Tube 147

Convection Across Cylinders 148

Microscopic Approach 155

References 159

10. Free Convection 161

Introduction 161

Key Dimensionless Numbers 162

Describing Equations 164

Environmental Applications 171

Lapse Rates 171

Plume Rise 173

References 176

11. Radiation 177

Introduction 177

Energy and Intensity 180

Radiant Exchange 183

Kirchoff’s Law 184

Emissivity Factors 189

View Factors 196

References 200

12. Condensation and Boiling 201

Introduction 201

Condensation Fundamentals 203

Phase Equilibrium 205

Psychrometric Chart 207

Steam Tables 208

Condensation Principles 209

Boiling Fundamentals 215

Boiling Principles 218

References 225

13. Refrigeration and Cryogenics 227

Introduction 227

Background Material 228

Refrigeration 228

Cryogenics 230

Liquefaction 231

Cryogens 232

Equipment 234

Typical Heat Exchangers 234

Materials of Construction 235

Insulation and Heat Loss 236

Storage and Transportation 240

Hazards, Risks, and Safety 241

Physiological Hazards 241

Physical Hazards 242

Chemical Hazards 244

Basic Principles and Applications 244

Coefficient of Performance 246

Thermal Efficiency 248

Entropy and Heat 252

References 253

Part Three Heat Transfer Equipment Design Procedures and Applications

14. Introduction to Heat Exchangers 257

Introduction 257

Energy Relationships 258

Heat Exchange Equipment Classification 260

The Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) Driving Force 262

Temperature Profiles 265

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients 268

Fouling Factors 271

The Controlling Resistance 272

Varying Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients 276

The Heat Transfer Equation 278

References 279

15. Double Pipe Heat Exchangers 281

Introduction 281

Equipment Description 282

Describing Equations 286

Calculation of Exit Temperatures 298

Effectiveness Factor and Number of Transfer Units 304

Wilson’s Method 309

References 313

16. Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers 315

Introduction 315

Equipment Description 316

Describing Equations 322

The “F” Factor 328

Effectiveness Factor and Number of Transfer Units 344

References 356

17. Fins and Extended Surfaces 357

Introduction 357

Fin Types 358

Describing Equations 360

Fin Effectiveness and Performance 371

Fin Considerations 380

References 380

18. Other Heat Exchange Equipment 381

Introduction 381

Evaporators 382

Mixing Effects 384

Waste Heat Boilers 392

Describing Equations 394

Condensers 401

Quenchers 404

Dilution with Ambient Air 405

Quenching with Liquids 405

Contact with High Heat Capacity Solids 405

Natural Convection and Radiation 406

Forced-Draft Cooling 406

References 410

19. Insulation and Refractory 411

Introduction 411

Describing Equations 411

Insulation 430

Critical Insulation Thickness 431

Refractory 435

References 442

20. Operation, Maintenance, and Inspection (OM&I) 443

Introduction 443

Installation Procedures 443

Clearance Provisions 444

Foundations 444

Leveling 444

Piping Considerations 444

Operation 445

Startup 446

Shut Down 446

Maintenance and Inspection 446

Cleaning 446

Testing 447

Improving Operation and Performance 448

References 449

21. Entropy Considerations and Analysis 451

Introduction 451

Qualitative Review of the Second Law 452

Describing Equations 453

The Heat Exchanger Dilemma 455

Applications 460

References 463

22. Design Principles and Industrial Applications 465

Introduction 465

General Design Procedures 466

Process Schematics 467

Purchasing a Heat Exchanger 468

Applications 470

References 490

Part Four Special Topics

23. Environmental Management 493

Introduction 493

Environmental Management History 493

Environmental Management Topics 495

Applications 496

References 503

24. Accident and Emergency Management 505

Introduction 505

Legislation 506

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) 506

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) 507

Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 508

USEPA’s Risk Management Program (RMP) 509

Hazard Risk Assessment 510

Applications 513

References 531

25. Ethics 533

Introduction 533

Teaching Ethics 534

The Case Study Approach 535

Applications 537

References 540

26. Numerical Methods 541

Introduction 541

History 542

Partial Differential Equations (PDE) 544

Parabolic PDE 545

Elliptical PDE 546

Regresion Analysis 554

Correlation Coefficient 557

Optimization 560

Perturbation Studies in Optimization 560

References 562

27. Economics and Finance 563

Introduction 563

The Need for Economic Analyses 563

Definitions 565

Simple Interest 565

Compound Interest 565

Present Worth 566

Evaluation of Sums of Money 566

Depreciation 567

Fabricated Equipment Cost Index 567

Capital Recovery Factor 567

Present Net Worth 568

Perpetual Life 568

Break-Even Point 569

Approximate Rate of Return 569

Exact Rate of Return 569

Bonds 570

Incremental Cost 570

Optimization 570

Principles of Accounting 571

Applications 573

References 588

28. Open-Ended Problems 589

Introduction 589

Developing Students’ Power of Critical Thinking 592

Creativity 592

Brainstorming 593

Inquiring Minds 594

Applications 594

References 602

Appendix A. Units 603

Appendix B. Tables 613

Appendix C. Figures 627

Appendix D. Steam Tables 631

Index 639

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