This book observes and critiques controversies on the genesis and the character of Israeli Hebrew. Did it emerge through revival? Did Ben-Yehuda play a role in it? Is Hebrew a normal language now? The hegemonic ideology of the revival of Hebrew is shown to have been harmonious with various Zionist streams, as well as with its rival, Canaanism. The effects of revivalism are evaluated, and an argument is made in favor of non-revivalist alternatives in linguistics and in language education.