Heliophysics: Space Storms and Radiation: Causes and Effects

Heliophysics: Space Storms and Radiation: Causes and Effects

by Carolus J. Schrijver
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0521760518

ISBN-13: 9780521760515

Pub. Date: 05/21/2010

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Heliophysics is a fast-developing scientific discipline that integrates studies of the sun's variability, the surrounding heliosphere, and the environment and climate of planets. Over the past few centuries, our understanding of how the Sun drives space weather and climate on the Earth and other planets has advanced at an ever increasing rate. The sun is a

Overview

Heliophysics is a fast-developing scientific discipline that integrates studies of the sun's variability, the surrounding heliosphere, and the environment and climate of planets. Over the past few centuries, our understanding of how the Sun drives space weather and climate on the Earth and other planets has advanced at an ever increasing rate. The sun is a magnetically variable star and, for planets with intrinsic magnetic fields, planets with atmospheres, or planets like Earth with both, there are profound consequences.

This volume, the second in a series of three heliophysics texts, integrates the many aspects of space storms and the energetic radiation associated with them-from their causes on the Sun to their effects in planetary environments. It reviews the physical processes in solar flares and coronal mass ejections, interplanetary shocks, and particle acceleration and transport, and considers many of the space weather responses in geospace. Historical space weather observations, in-situ particle measurement techniques, radiative emissions from energetic particles, and impacts of space weather on people and technology in space are also reviewed. In addition to its utility as a textbook, it constitutes a foundational reference for researchers in the fields of heliophysics, astrophysics, plasma physics, space physics, solar physics, aeronomy, space weather, planetary science, and climate science. Additional online resources, including lecture presentations and other teaching materials, can be accessed at cambridge.org/9780521760515.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780521760515
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press
Publication date:
05/21/2010
Pages:
472
Product dimensions:
7.00(w) x 9.80(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

Preface ix

1 Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe Carolus J. Schrijver 1

1.1 Universal processes: "laws" of space weather 1

1.2 Pressure, gravity, and electromagnetism 2

1.3 Structure and dynamics of the local cosmos 5

1.4 Energetic particles 8

1.5 Weather and climate in space 9

1.6 Universal processes in the local cosmos and instrumentation 12

2 Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Uncovering the Sun-Earth connection 16

2.3 Human impacts of space weather 17

2.4 Impacts of solar flares 25

2.5 The satellite era 28

2.6 How bad can it get? 35

2.7 Outside the box 38

2.8 Space weather awareness 38

2.9 Space weather forecasting 40

3 In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler 43

3.1 Introduction 43

3.2 What needs to be measured and how it is measured? 46

3.3 Geometrical factor of detectors 47

3.4 Energy loss of energetic particles by ionization 48

3.5 Simple particle detectors 52

3.6 Energy analyzers 62

3.7 Time-of-flight telescopes 66

3.8 Space instruments measuring composition 67

4 Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian 79

4.1 Overview of the electromagnetic spectrum 79

4.2 Preliminaries 87

4.3 Radiation from energetic particles 93

4.4 New observations, new questions 116

5 Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson 123

5.1 Introduction 123

5.2 Overview of flare properties 125

5.3 The basic phenomena of a solar flare 131

5.4 Flare energetics 142

5.5 Flare analogs 144

5.6 Observational aspects of magnetic reconnection 151

5.7 Conclusions 157

6 Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes 159

6.1 Recapitulation of key observational features 159

6.2 Models 169

6.3 Some topics for future research 191

7 Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher 193

7.1 Introduction 193

7.2 Why shocks happen: non-linear steepening and shocks 196

7.3 Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions 198

7.4 Definition and classification of shocks 200

7.5 Physical processes in shocks and future work 206

8 Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban 209

8.1 Introduction 209

8.2 Types of shocks and plasma parameters 210

8.3 Kinetic shock physics 212

8.4 Particle acceleration mechanisms at shocks 216

8.5 Particle acceleration at the Earth's bow shock and at interplanetary shocks 223

8.6 Summary 230

9 Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone 233

9.1 Cosmic rays in the solar system 233

9.2 The motion of individual charged particles 239

9.3 The cosmic-ray transport equation 245

9.4 The diffusion tensor 253

9.5 Some representative applications 256

10 Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliunas 263

10.1 Introduction 263

10.2 Overview of disturbances in Earth's space environment 263

10.3 Fundamentals of energy storage, transfer, and loss 267

10.4 Energy budget of magnetospheres 273

10.5 What leads to explosive energy releases? 283

10.6 Applications: Earth 286

10.7 Applications: other planets 289

10.8 Concluding remarks 291

11 Energization of trapped particles Janet Green 293

11.1 Heliophysical particles: universal processes and problems 293

11.2 Particle motion 296

11.3 General characteristics of heliospheric particle radiation 302

11.4 Radiation belt acceleration mechanisms 305

11.5 Radiation belt particle losses 315

12 Flares, coronal mass ejections, and atmospheric responses Timothy Fuller-Rowell Stanley C. Solomon 321

12.1 Introduction 321

12.2 ITM responses to geomagnetic storms 323

12.3 ITM responses to solar flares 346

12.4 Conclusions 356

13 Energetic particles and manned spaceflight Stephen Guetersloh Neal Zapp 359

13.1 Radiation protection: introduction 359

13.2 Sources of radiation exposure during spaceflight 363

13.3 Spaceflight operations 366

13.4 The Constellation Program 368

13.5 Environmental characterization 372

13.6 Summary 378

14 Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble 381

14.1 Introduction 381

14.2 Overview of space environment effects 381

14.3 Effects of keV energy particles: spacecraft charging 385

14.4 Effects of MeV energy particles: total-dose effects 391

14.5 Effects of GeV energy particles: single-event effects 394

14.6 Modeling the GCR/SPE environment 398

Appendix I Authors and editors 401

List of illustrations 403

List of tables 410

References 411

Index 441

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