Heliophysics: Space Storms and Radiation: Causes and Effects

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Heliophysics is a fast-developing scientific discipline that integrates studies of the sun's variability, the surrounding heliosphere, and the environment and climate of planets. Over the past few centuries, our understanding of how the Sun drives space weather and climate on the Earth and other planets has advanced at an ever increasing rate. The sun is a magnetically variable star and, for planets with intrinsic magnetic fields, planets with atmospheres, or planets like Earth with both, there are profound consequences.

This volume, the second in a series of three heliophysics texts, integrates the many aspects of space storms and the energetic radiation associated with them-from their causes on the Sun to their effects in planetary environments. It reviews the physical processes in solar flares and coronal mass ejections, interplanetary shocks, and particle acceleration and transport, and considers many of the space weather responses in geospace. Historical space weather observations, in-situ particle measurement techniques, radiative emissions from energetic particles, and impacts of space weather on people and technology in space are also reviewed. In addition to its utility as a textbook, it constitutes a foundational reference for researchers in the fields of heliophysics, astrophysics, plasma physics, space physics, solar physics, aeronomy, space weather, planetary science, and climate science. Additional online resources, including lecture presentations and other teaching materials, can be accessed at cambridge.org/9780521760515.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"The 14-chapter, comprehensive, multiauthored volume provides insightful introductions to space storms and radiation; energetic particle transport and detection; solar eruptions; flares, jets and coronal mass ejections; shocks; trapped particles; and near-Earth space environment responses." T. Eastman, formerly, University of Maryland

"...provides insightful introductions to space storms and radiation; energetic particle transport and detection; solar eruptions, flares, jets, and coronal mass ejections; shocks; trapped particles; and near-Earth space environment responses." CHOICE

“The book gives a very detailed insight into the various fields within heliophysics, both with respect to past and recent findings and the ongoing research, its methods and tools. It is very well illustrated by numerous black and white figures and a number of colour figures…Its understanding does not require high-level mathematics, but a solid knowledge of physics. The quality of the print, the paper and the book as a whole is excellent and it can be recommended without hesitation.” – Manuel Vogel, Contemporary Physics, November 2011

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780521760515
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • Publication date: 5/21/2010
  • Pages: 472
  • Sales rank: 1,333,678
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.80 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Carolus J. Schrijver is an astrophysicist studying the causes and effects of magnetic activity of the Sun and of stars like the Sun, and the coupling of the Sun's magnetic field into the surrounding heliosphere. He obtained his doctorate in physics and astronomy at the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands in 1986, and has since worked for the University of Colorado, the U.S. National Solar Observatory, the European Space Agency, and the Royal Academy of Sciences of the Netherlands. Dr Schrijver is currently principal physicist at Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center, where his work focuses primarily on the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere. He is an editor or editorial board member of several journals including Solar Physics, Astronomical Notices, and Living Reviews in Solar Physics, and has co-edited three other books.

George L. Siscoe received his Ph.D. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1964. He has since held positions at the California Institute of Technology, MIT, and the University of California, Los Angeles, where he was Professor and Chair of the Department of Atmospheric Sciences. He is currently a Research Professor in the Astronomy Department at Boston University. Professor Siscoe has been a member and chair of numerous international committees and panels and is on the editorial board of the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar Terrestrial Physics. He is a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union and the second Van Allen Lecturer of the AGU, 1991. He has authored or co-authored over 300 publications that cover most areas of heliophysics.

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Table of Contents


1 Perspective on heliophysics 1

1.1 Universal processes: "laws" of space weather Carolus J. Schrifver Schrifver, Carolus J. 1

1.2 Pressure, gravity, and electromagnetism Carolus J. Schrifver Schrifver, Carolus J. 2

1.3 Structure and dynamics of the local cosmos Carolus J. Schrifver Schrifver, Carolus J. 5

1.4 Energetic particles Carolus J. Schrifver Schrifver, Carolus J. 8

1.5 Weather and climate in space Carolus J. Schrifver Schrifver, Carolus J. 9

1.6 Universal processes in the local cosmos and instrumentation Carolus J. Schrifver Schrifver, Carolus J. 12

2 Introduction to space storms and radiation Carolus J. Schrifver Schrifver, Carolus J. 15

2.1 Introduction Sten Odenwald Odenwald, Sten 15

2.2 Uncovering the Sun Earth connection Sten Odenwald Odenwald, Sten 16

2.3 Human impacts of space weather Sten Odenwald Odenwald, Sten 17

2.4 Impacts of solar flares Sten Odenwald Odenwald, Sten 25

2.5 The satellite era Sten Odenwald Odenwald, Sten 28

2.6 How bad can it get? Sten Odenwald Odenwald, Sten 35

2.7 Outside the box Sten Odenwald Odenwald, Sten 38

2.8 Space weather awareness Sten Odenwald Odenwald, Sten 38

2.9 Space weather forecasting Sten Odenwald Odenwald, Sten 40

3 In-situ detection of energetic particles Sten Odenwald Odenwald, Sten 43

3.1 Introduction George Gloeckler Gloeckler, George 43

3.2 What needs to be measured and how it is measured? George Gloeckler Gloeckler, George 46

3.3 Geometrical factor of detectors George Gloeckler Gloeckler, George 47

3.4 Energy loss of energetic particles by ionization George Gloeckler Gloeckler, George 48

3.5 Simple particle detectors George Gloeckler Gloeckler, George 52

3.6 Energy analyzers George Gloeckler Gloeckler, George 62

3.7 Time-of-flight telescopes George Gloeckler Gloeckler, George 66

3.8 Space instruments measuring composition George Gloeckler Gloeckler, George 67

4 Radiative signatures of energetic particles George Gloeckler Gloeckler, George 79

4.1 Overview of the electromagnetic spectrum Tim Bastian Bastian, Tim 79

4.2 Preliminaries Tim Bastian Bastian, Tim 87

4.3 Radiation from energetic particles Tim Bastian Bastian, Tim 93

4.4 New observations, new questions Tim Bastian Bastian, Tim 116

5 Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Tim Bastian Bastian, Tim 123

5.1 Introduction Hugh Hudson Hudson, Hugh 123

5.2 Overview of flare properties Hugh Hudson Hudson, Hugh 125

5.3 The basic phenomena of a solar flare Hugh Hudson Hudson, Hugh 131

5.4 Flare energetics Hugh Hudson Hudson, Hugh 142

5.5 Flare analogs Hugh Hudson Hudson, Hugh 144

5.6 Observational aspects of magnetic reconnection Hugh Hudson Hudson, Hugh 151

5.7 Conclusions Hugh Hudson Hudson, Hugh 157

6 Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Hugh Hudson Hudson, Hugh 159

6.1 Recapitulation of key observational features Terry Forbes Forbes, Terry 159

6.2 Models Terry Forbes Forbes, Terry 169

6.3 Some topics for future research Terry Forbes Forbes, Terry 191

7 Shocks in hellophysics Terry Forbes Forbes, Terry 193

7.1 Introduction Merav Opher Opher, Merav 193

7.2 Why shocks happen: non-linear steepening and shocks Merav Opher Opher, Merav 196

7.3 Rankine Hugoniot jump conditions Merav Opher Opher, Merav 198

7.4 Definition and classification of shocks Merav Opher Opher, Merav 200

7.5 Physical processes in shocks and future work Merav Opher Opher, Merav 206

8 Particle acceleration in shocks Merav Opher Opher, Merav 209

8.1 Introduction Dietmar Krauss-Varban Krauss-Varban, Dietmar 209

8.2 Types of shocks and plasma parameters Dietmar Krauss-Varban Krauss-Varban, Dietmar 210

8.3 Kinetic shock physics Dietmar Krauss-Varban Krauss-Varban, Dietmar 212

8.4 Particle acceleration mechanisms at shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban Krauss-Varban, Dietmar 216

8.5 Particle acceleration at the Earth's bow shock and at interplanetary shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban Krauss-Varban, Dietmar 223

8.6 Summary Dietmar Krauss-Varban Krauss-Varban, Dietmar 230

9 Energetic particle transport Dietmar Krauss-Varban Krauss-Varban, Dietmar 233

9.1 Cosmic rays in the solar system Joe Giacalone Giacalone, Joe 233

9.2 The motion of individual charged particles Joe Giacalone Giacalone, Joe 239

9.3 The cosmic-ray transport equation Joe Giacalone Giacalone, Joe 245

9.4 The diffusion tensor Joe Giacalone Giacalone, Joe 253

9.5 Some representative applications Joe Giacalone Giacalone, Joe 256

10 Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Joe Giacalone Giacalone, Joe 263

10.1 Introduction Vytenis Vasyliunas Vasyliunas, Vytenis 263

10.2 Overview of disturbances in Earth's space environment Vytenis Vasyliunas Vasyliunas, Vytenis 263

10.3 Fundamentals of energy storage, transfer, and loss Vytenis Vasyliunas Vasyliunas, Vytenis 267

10.4 Energy budget of magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliunas Vasyliunas, Vytenis 273

10.5 What leads to explosive energy releases? Vytenis Vasyliunas Vasyliunas, Vytenis 283

10.6 Applications: Earth Vytenis Vasyliunas Vasyliunas, Vytenis 286

10.7 Applications: other planets Vytenis Vasyliunas Vasyliunas, Vytenis 289

10.8 Concluding remarks Vytenis Vasyliunas Vasyliunas, Vytenis 291

11 Energization of trapped particles Vytenis Vasyliunas Vasyliunas, Vytenis 293

11.1 Heliophysical particles: universal processes and problems Janet Green Green, Janet 293

11.2 Particle motion Janet Green Green, Janet 296

11.3 General characteristics of heliospheric particle radiation Janet Green Green, Janet 302

11.4 Radiation belt acceleration mechanisms Janet Green Green, Janet 305

11.5 Radiation belt particle losses Janet Green Green, Janet 315

12 Flares, coronal mass ejections, and atmospheric responses Janet Green Green, Janet 321

12.1 Introduction Stanley C. Solomon Solomon, Stanley C. 321

12.2 ITM responses to geomagnetic storms Stanley C. Solomon Solomon, Stanley C. 323

12.3 ITM responses to solar flares Stanley C. Solomon Solomon, Stanley C. 346

12.4 Conclusions Stanley C. Solomon Solomon, Stanley C. 356

13 Energetic particles and manned spaceflight Stanley C. Solomon Solomon, Stanley C. 359

13.1 Radiation protection: introduction Neal Zapp Zapp, Neal 359

13.2 Sources of radiation exposure during spaceflight Neal Zapp Zapp, Neal 363

13.3 Spaceflight operations Neal Zapp Zapp, Neal 366

13.4 The Constellation Program Neal Zapp Zapp, Neal 368

13.5 Environmental characterization Neal Zapp Zapp, Neal 372

13.6 Summary Neal Zapp Zapp, Neal 378

14 Energetic particles and technology Neal Zapp Zapp, Neal 381

14.1 Introduction Alan Tribble Tribble, Alan 381

14.2 Overview of space environment effects Alan Tribble Tribble, Alan 381

14.3 Effects of keV energy particles: spacecraft charging Alan Tribble Tribble, Alan 385

14.4 Effects of MeV energy particles: total-dose effects Alan Tribble Tribble, Alan 391

14.5 Effects of GeV energy particles: single-event effects Alan Tribble Tribble, Alan 394

14.6 Modeling the GCR/SPE environment Alan Tribble Tribble, Alan 398

Appendix I Authors and editors Alan Tribble Tribble, Alan 401

List of illustrations Alan Tribble Tribble, Alan 403

List of tables Alan Tribble Tribble, Alan 410

References Alan Tribble Tribble, Alan 411

Index Alan Tribble Tribble, Alan 441

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