Hellenistic Science and Culture in the Last Three Centuries b.c.

Overview

"No historian of science equalled him in knowledge, breadth and enthusiasm, none saw the subject whole as he did, and none did so much to promote the study." — Scientific American

In the centuries immediately preceding the birth of Christ, geometry, astronomy, physics, anatomy, mathematics, grammar and other disciplines flowered in a nurturing matrix of Greek rationalism mixed with fructifying elements from Egyptian, Jewish, Persian, Syrian, Indian, African and other cultures. ...

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Overview

"No historian of science equalled him in knowledge, breadth and enthusiasm, none saw the subject whole as he did, and none did so much to promote the study." — Scientific American

In the centuries immediately preceding the birth of Christ, geometry, astronomy, physics, anatomy, mathematics, grammar and other disciplines flowered in a nurturing matrix of Greek rationalism mixed with fructifying elements from Egyptian, Jewish, Persian, Syrian, Indian, African and other cultures. The result was one of the most fertile and influential periods in Western intellectual history. In this monumental study, a noted scholar focuses on this era, painting a broad picture that emphasizes science but also includes ancient arts and letters, since as Professor Sarton notes, "We could never understand Hellenistic culture without their gracious presence."
The book is divided into two parts: Part One deals with the third century B.C. As the empire of Alexander the Great disintegrated, a Greek intellectual hegemony evolved, grounded in the work of Ptolemy and Euclid, Aristarchos and Archimedes, Eratosthenes and other thinkers. Ranging widely across the spectrum of Hellenistic accomplishment, Dr. Sarton outlines advances in geography and chronology, physics, technology, anatomy, medicine, philosophy and religion, language and more.
Part Two takes up the last two centuries before the Christian era. Beginning with the social background of the Hellenistic world, the author illuminates the relationship between Greek religion and Hebrew scripture, the development of Athenian schools of philosophy, and the astronomical theories of Hipparchos, as well as documenting advances in mathematics, physics and technology, natural history, medicine, geography, philology, art, and literature.
Writing with exceptional acumen and erudition, Dr. Sarton, one of the world's foremost authorities on the history of science, develops a stimulating and vibrant picture of the beginnings of Western science and culture, and demonstrates how the achievements of three extraordinary centuries have echoed down the ages. 112 black-and-white illustrations. Foreword. Index. Bibliography.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780486277400
  • Publisher: Dover Publications
  • Publication date: 10/12/1993
  • Edition description: Reissue
  • Pages: 554
  • Sales rank: 1,247,816
  • Product dimensions: 5.37 (w) x 8.42 (h) x 1.07 (d)

Table of Contents

FOREWORD by Bernard Cohen
PART ONE
  THE THIRD CENTURY
  I. THE ALEXANDRIAN RENAISSANCE
      THE DISITNEGRATION OF ALEXANDERS EMPIRE
      IRANIAN AND INDIAN INFLUENCES IN THE HELLENISTIC KINGDOMS
      MILINDAPANHA
      SOME PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON THE EXCHANGE OF SCIENTIFIC IDEAS
      PTOLEMAIC EGYPT
      "ALEXANDRIA NEAR EGYPT"
      THE HARBORS OF ALEXANDRIA AND THE LIGHTHOUSE
      THE SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD
  II. THE MUSEUM
      FOUNDATION OF THE MUSEUM
      PTOLEMAIOS I SOTER AND PTOLEMAIOS II PHILADELPHOS
      Demetrios of Phaleron
      Straton of Lampsacos
      LATER HISTORY OF THE MUSEUM
  III. EUCLID OF ALEXANDRIA
      EUCLID'S LIFE AND WORK
      The Elements
      Postulates
      NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRIES
      Algebra
      Irrational quantities
      Theory of numbers
      THE EUCLIDEAN TRADITION
      BIBLIOGRAPHY
  IV. ASTRONOMY. ARISTARCHOS AND ARATOS
      ARISTYLLOS AND TIMOCHARIS
      ARISTARCHOS OF SAMOS
      The Aristarchian tradition
      ARATOS OF SOLOI
      THE ARATIAN TRADITION
  V. ARCHIMEDES AND APOLLONIOS
      ARCHIMEDES OF SYRACUSE
      Geometry
      Arithmetic
      Mechanics
      THE ARCHIMEDEAN TRADITION
      CONON OF SAMOS
      APOLLONIOS OF PERGE
      THE APOLLONIAN TRADITION
  VI. GEOGRAPHY AND CHRONOLOGY IN THE THIRD CENTURY ERATOSTHENES OF CYRENE
      ERATOSTHENES OF CYRENE
      PRE-ERATOSTHENIAN GEOGRAPHY
      ERATOSTHENES GEOGRAPHIC WORKS
      THE MEASUREMENT OF THE EARTH
      ASTRONOMY
      MATHEMATICS
      PHILOLOGY
      THE ERATOSTHENIAN TRADITION
      NOTE ON THE OLYMPIADS
      THE MARMOR PARIUM
  VII. PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE THIRD CENTURY
      EUCLID
      ARCHIMEDES
      ENGINEERING AND PUBLIC WORKS IN THE GREEK EAST
      THE GREAT SHIPS
      ENGINEERING AND PUBLIC WORKS IN THE ROMAN EAST
  VIII. ANATOMY IN THE THIRD CENTURY
      HEROPHILOS OF CHALEDON
      ERASISTRATOS OF IULIS
      VIVISECTION
      EUDEMOS OF ALEXANDRIA
  IX. MEDICINE IN THE THIRD CENTURY
      APOLLONIOS OF ALEXANDRIA AND NICANROS OF COLOPHO
      PHILIONOS OF COS
      "ANDREAS, DISCIPLE OF HEROPHILOS"
      ARCHAGATHOS OF ROME
  X. THE LIBRARY
      ACIENT LIBRARIES
      THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA
      Librarians of Alexandria
      Growth of the Library
      Rolls of papyrus
      Size of the Library
      ZENODOTOS OF EPHESOS
      CALLIMACHOS OF CYRENE
      APOLLONIOS OF RHODOS
      ERATOSTHENES OF CYRENE
      ARISTOPHANES OF BYZANTION
      ARISTARCHOS OF SAMOTHRACE
      LATER HISTORY OF THE LIBRARY
  XI. PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION IN THE THIRD CENTURY
      THE ACADEMY
      SCHOOLS OF MEGARA AND CYRENE
      THE LYCEUM
      THE PORCH
      THE GARDEN
      CYNICS AND SKEPTICS
      ROYAL PATRONS
      STOICISM
      TYCHE
      ASTROLOGY
      ORIENTAL RELIGIONS
      ISRAEL
  XII. KNOWLEDGE OF THE PAST IN THE THIRD CENTURY
      THE EARLY HISTORIANS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE ALEXANDER ROMANCE
      OTHER GREEK HISTORIANS
      Crateros the Younger
      Philochoros of Athens
      Hieronynos of Cardia
      Menippos of Gadara
      THE EARLIEST ROMAN HISTORIANS
      Q. FABIUS PICTOR AND L. CINCUS ALIMENTUS
  XIII. "LANGUAGE, ARTS, AND LETTERS"
      THE EARLY GROWTH OF GREEK PHILOLOGY
      MENADROS OF ATHENS
      A FEW MINOR POETS
      APOLLONIOS OF RHODOS
      THEOCRITOS OF SYRACUSE
      SCULPTURE
      Lysipos of Sicyon
      Chares of Lindos
      Antigonos of Carystos
      "Victory of Samothrace"
      "The "Lady of Elche"
      Tanagra statuettes
      PAINTING
      APELLES OF COLOPHON
      SPHRAGISTICS
      PYRGOTELES
  XIV. ORIENTALISM
      INDIA
      Nearchos and Megasthenes
      Asoka and Buddhist expansion
      Short bibliography
      EGYPT
      Manethon
      The calendar of Sais
      BABYLONIA
      BEROSSOS
      PHOENICIA
      ISRAEL
PART TWO
  THE LAST TWO CENTURIES
  XV. THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND
      THE HELLENISTIC WORLD
      THE GROWTH OF ROME
      CAESAR AND AUGUSTUS
      ROMAN LIBRARIES
      ARCHIVES AND CACTA DIURNA
  XVI. RELIGION IN THE LAST TWO CENTURIES
      GREEK RELIGION
      HEBREW WRITINGS
      THE OLD TESTAMENT APOCRYPHA
      THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS
      THE ESSENES
      JEWS VS. GREEKS
      Legend that Greek wisdom was derived from Hebrew sources
      NATIONAL CULTS
  XVII. "PHILOSOPHY IN THE LAST TWO CENTURIES. POSEIDONIOS, CICERO, AND LUCRETIUS"
      ATHENIAN SCHOOLS
      THE GROWTH OF STOICISM
      PANAITIOS OF RHODOS
      POSEIDONIOS OF APAMELA
      CICERO
      LUCRETIUS
      The Lucretian tradition
      FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE
  XVIII. MATHEMATICS IN THE LAST TWO CENTURIES
      HYPSICLES
      Polybios
      Hipparchos of Nicaia
      Artemidoros of Ephesos
      Eudoxos of Cyzios
      Poseidonios of Apameia
      Strabon of Amaseia
      Isidoros of Charax
      LATIN GEOGRAPHY
      Julius Casear
      M. V. Agrippa
      King Juba II
      Hyginus
  XXIV. KNOWLEDGE OF THE PAST IN THE LAST TWO CENTURIES
      THE GREEK HISTORIANS
      Polybios
      The other Greek historians
      Polemon of Troas and Agatharchides of Cnidos
      Apollonios of Athens
      Poseidonios
      Castor of Rhodos
      Diodoros of Sicily
      Nicolaos of Damascus
      Dionysios of Halicarnassos
      Strabon of Amaseia
      Juba II of Numidia
      THE LATIN HISTORIANS
      Ennius
      Cato the Censor
      Caesar
      Varro
      Sallust
      Livy
  XXV. LITERATURE
      GREEK LETTERS
      Meleagros of Gadra
      Philodemos of Gadara
      Archias of Antioch
      Parthenios of Nicaia
      Lesser prose writers
      LATIN LETTERS
      Livius Andronicus and Naevius
      Ennius
      Plautus and Terentius
      Cato the Censor
      Scipio Aemilianus and C. Lucilius
      Catullus
      Cicero
      Caesar
      M. T. Varro
      Sallust
      Livy
      THE LATIN POETS OF THE AUGUSTAN AGE
      Maecenas
      Virgil
      Horace
      Tibullus and Propertius
      Ovid
  XXVI. PHILOLOGY IN THE LAST TWO CENTURIES
      GREEK PHILOLOGY
      LATIN PHILOLOGY
  XXVII. ART IN THE LAST TWO CENTURIES
    "HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE IN GREECE, EGYPT, AND ASIA"
    HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE IN ROME
    ROMAN SCULPTURE
    HELLENISTIC AND ROMAN PAINTING
    ENGRAVED GEMS
  XXVIII. ORIENTALISM IN THE LAST TWO CENTURIES
    BORDERLANDS: THE PARTHIAN EMPIRE AND THE RED SEA
    Trade with India and China
    Polybios
    Ptolemaios V Epiphanes; the Rosetta Stone
    Mithridates VI the Great
    THE END OF THE FIRST CENTURY
  XXIX. CONCLUSION
    GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
    INDEX
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