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|The Coming of Civilization||1|
|Empires and Cultures of the Ancient World||75|
|Consolidation and Interaction of World Civilization||225|
|The World in Transition||420|
|Enlightenment and Revolution in the West||656|
|Into the Modern World||740|
|Global Conflict and Change||926|
The idea of globalization was once just that, an idea. It is now a pressing reality in the life of nations, affecting the standard of living, the environment, and war and peace. Globalization is also a daily reality in the lives of ordinary people. Not only are global markets linked as never before, but the internet quickly delivers all manner of information to the readers of this book. People with different cultural heritages, religious beliefs, and economic and political expectations are being drawn into ever closer contact with one another. If that experience is to be one of peace and mutual respect, then understanding the historical experiences that have informed and shaped the world's cultures is essential. Globalization demands of world citizens greater historical knowledge than ever before. The Heritage of World Civilizations provides a path to such knowledge.
Globalization itself has resulted from two major historical developments: the closing of the European era of world history and the rise of technology. From approximately 1500 to the middle of the twentieth century, Europeans gradually came to dominate the world through colonization (most particularly in North and South America), political organization, economic productivity, and military power.
That era ended during the third quarter of the twentieth century after Europe had broughtunprecedented destruction on itself during World War II and as the nations of Asia, the Near East, and Africa achieved new positions on the world scene. Their new political independence, their control over strategic natural resources, and the expansion of their economies (particularly those of the nations of the Pacific rim of Asia), and in some cases their access to nuclear weapons have changed the shape of world affairs.
The second historical development that continues to fuel the pace of globalization is technology, associated most importantly with transportation, military weapons, and electronic communication. The advances in transportation over the past two centuries including ships, railways, and airplanes made more parts of the world and its resources accessible to more people in ever shorter spans of time. Military weapons of increasingly destructive power over the past century and a half enabled Europeans to dominate other regions of the globe Now, the spread of these weapons means that any nation with sophisticated military technology can threaten any other nation, no matter how far away. Most recently, the electronic revolution associated with computer technology in all its forms has sparked an unprecedented speed and complexity in global communications. It is astonishing to recall that personal computers have been generally available for less than twenty years and that rapid communication associated with them has existed for less than a decade.
Why not, then, focus only on new factors in the modern world, such as the impact of technology and the end of the European era? To do that would ignore the very deep roots that these developments have in the past. Modern technology and society were shaped by the values, ingenuity, and expectations of people centuries old. For that reason, The Heritage of World Civilizations continues to pay particular attention to the emergence of the major religious traditions. These link today's civilizations to their most ancient roots and continue to exert a powerful influence worldwide. We believe this emphasis on the great religious traditions recognizes not only a factor that has shaped the past but also one of the most dynamic, influential forces of today.
We also bring a comparative perspective to our survey, tracing the threads of interaction that have linked civilizations throughout history. In the end, students should emerge more culturally sensitive citizens of the global, twenty-first century.
We prepared the brief version of our text, The Heritage of World Civilizations, Fifth Edition, in response to the demand for abridged textbooks in the field, by instructors who wanted to use readings, computer simulations, or a variety of other sources of information as well as a textbook in their courses.
The brief edition is about half as long as the complete version. We eliminated 25 percent of the text, and made up the rest of the cuts by removing some photographs, maps, and source documents. We also eliminated the part essays, comparative perspectives, and religions of the world essays from the complete version of the text, but these, as well as the source documents cut from this version, may be found on the companion website for this text. Throughout the abridgement process we made sure that the text retained the coherency of the full-length version. Every effort was made to keep the narrative lively and engaging.
Balanced and Flexible Presentation. In this edition, as in past editions, we have sought to present world history fairly, accurately, and in a way that does justice to its great variety. History has many facets, no one of which can account for the others. Any attempt to tell the story of civilization from a single perspective, no matter how timely, is bound to neglect or suppress some important part of that story.
Historians have recently brought a vast array of new tools and concepts to bear on the study of history. Our coverage introduces students to various aspects of social and intellectual history as well as to the more traditional political, diplomatic, and military coverage. We firmly believe that only through an appreciation of all pathways to understanding of the past can the real heritage of world civilizations be claimed.
The Heritage of World Civilizations is designed to accommodate a variety of approaches to a course in world civilization, allowing teachers to stress what is most important to them. Some teachers will ask students to read all the chapters. Others will select among them to reinforce assigned readings and lectures.
Clarity and Accessibility. Good narrative history requires clear, vigorous prose. Our goal has been to make our presentation fully accessible to students without compromising on vocabulary or conceptual level. We hope this effort will benefit both teachers and students.
Recent Scholarship. As in previous editions, changes in this edition reflect our determination to incorporate the most recent developments in historical scholarship and the expanding concerns of professional historians.
Pedagogical Features. This edition retains the pedagogical features of the last edition, helping to make the text accessible to students, reinforcing key concepts, and providing a global, comparative perspective.
Content and Organization. The many changes in content and organization in the 5th edition of The Heritage of World Civilizations reflect our ongoing effort to present a truly global survey of world civilization that at the same time gives a rich picture of the history of individual regions.
In an effort to draw students into both a comparative and, in this case, transatlantic perspective, we have omitted the separate chapter on North America in the nineteenth century, transferring most of that material to chapters which deal with related topics in European history. Thus, for example, the Civil War in the United States appears in the chapter on nineteenth-century nation-state consolidation (Chapter 27). Similarly, the late nineteenth-century social development of the United States now appears with the contemporaneous developments in Europe (Chapter 28). We hope that such integration will enable students to understand the broad strands of the development of the United States in a broader context.
Revisions of specific chapters include the following:
A Note on Dates and Transliterations. We have used B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (common era) instead of B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno domini, the year of our Lord) to designate dates.
Until recently, most scholarship on China used the Wade Giles system of romanization for Chinese names and terms In order that students may move easily from the present text to the existing body of advanced scholarship on Chinese history, we have used the Wade-Giles system throughout. China today, however, uses another system known as pinyin. Virtually all Western newspapers have adopted it Therefore, for Chinese history since 1949 we have included the pinyin spellings in parentheses after the Wade-Giles. Also, we have followed the currently accepted English transliterations of Arabic words. For example, today Koran is being replaced by the more accurate Qur'an; similarly Muhammad is preferable to Mohammed and Muslim to Moslem. We have not tried to distinguish the letters 'ayn and hamza; both are rendered by a simple apostrophe ('), as in shi'ite.
With regard to Sanskritic transliteration, we have not distinguished linguals and dentals, and both palatal and lingual s are rendered sh, as in Shiva and Upanishad.
The Heritage of World Civilisations, Brief Edition, comes with an extensive package of ancillary materials.
The ancillary package also includes an extensive list of multimedia supplements.
History on the Internet. This guide focuses on developing the critical thinking skills necessary to evaluate and use online sources. The guide also provides a brief introduction to navigating the Internet, along with complete references related specifically to the History discipline and how to use the Companion Website available for The Heritage of World Civilizations. This supplementary book is free to students when shrink-wrapped with the text.
Finally, we would like to thank the dedicated people who helped produce this brief edition: our acquisitions editor, Charles Cavaliere; our development editor, Gerald Lombardi; Kathy Foot, who created the handsome new design for this edition; Harriet Tellem, our project manager; and Lynn Pearlman, our manufacturing buyer.