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Heritage of World Civilizations / Edition 8
     

Heritage of World Civilizations / Edition 8

by Albert M. Craig
 

See All Formats & Editions

ISBN-10: 0136003222

ISBN-13: 2900136003228

Pub. Date: 03/10/2008

Publisher: Prentice Hall

The Heritage of World Civilizations, Eighth Edition is available in the following formats:

Combined Volume

(hardback)

Chapters 1-34

0-13-601905-6

Volume 1: To 1700

(paperback)

Chapters 1-18

0-13-600277-3

Volume 2: Since 1500

(paperback)

Chapters 15-34

0-13-600322-2

About the Cover

Pedestrians in the Streets of Tokyo,

Overview

The Heritage of World Civilizations, Eighth Edition is available in the following formats:

Combined Volume

(hardback)

Chapters 1-34

0-13-601905-6

Volume 1: To 1700

(paperback)

Chapters 1-18

0-13-600277-3

Volume 2: Since 1500

(paperback)

Chapters 15-34

0-13-600322-2

About the Cover

Pedestrians in the Streets of Tokyo, Japan

Formerly known as Edo, the city was renamed Tokyo by the emperor Meiji in 1868. With 30 million inhabitants, Tokyo is the world's most populous urban area, stretching over 87 miles along the eastern coast of the island of Honshu. Repeatedly destroyed by fires, earthquakes, and especially bombing in World War II, Tokyo is constantly undergoing change and boasts many innovative architectural projects. Beyond the busy intersections and freeways lies a city of hidden villages, each with its own individual identity, and where bicycles are osten more common than cars.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
2900136003228
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Publication date:
03/10/2008
Series:
MyHistoryLab Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
752

Table of Contents

PART IV. THE WORLD IN TRANSITION.

16. Europe to the Early 1500s: Revival, Decline, and Renaissance.

Revival of the Empire, Church, and Towns

Otto I and the Revival of the Empire

The Reviving Catholic Church

The Crusades

Towns and Townspeople

Society

The Order of Life

Medieval Women

Growth of National Monarchies

England and France: Hastings (1066) to Bouvines (1214)

France in the Thirteenth Century: Reign of Louis IX

The Hohenstaufen Empire (1152-1272)

Political and Social Breakdown

Hundred Years’ War

The Black Death

New Conflicts and Opportunities

Ecclesiastical Breakdown and the Revival: the Late Medieval Church

Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair

The Great Schism (1378-1417) and the Conciliar Movement to 1449

The Renaissance in Italy (1375-1527)

The Italian City-State: Social Conflict and Despotism

Humanism

Renaissance Art in and Beyond Italy

Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494-1527)

Niccolò Machiavelli

Revival of Monarchy: Nation Building in the Fifteenth Century

Medieval Russia

France

Spain

England

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

17. Europe 1500-1650: Expansion, Reformation, and Religious Wars.

The Discovery of a New World

The Portuguese Chart the Course

The Spanish Voyages of Christopher Columbus

Impact on Europe and America

The Reformation

Religion and Society

Popular Movements and Criticism of the Church

Secular Control over Religious Life

The Northern Renaissance

Martin Luther and the German Reformation to 1525

Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation

Anabaptists and Radical Protestants

John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation

Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation

The English Reformation to 1553

Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation

The Reformation’s Achievements

Religion in Fifteenth-Century Life

Religion in Sixteenth-Century Life

Family Life in Early Modern Europe

The Wars of Religion

French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)

Imperial Spain and the Reign of Philip II (1556-1598)

England and Spain (1558-1603)

The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)

Superstition and Enlightenment: the Battle Within

Witch Hunts and Panic

Writers and Philosophers

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

* Religions of the World: Christianity *

18. Conquest and Exploitation: the Development of the Transatlantic Economy.

Periods of European Overseas Expansion

Mercantilist Theory of Economic Exploitation

Establishment of the Spanish Empire in America

Conquest of the Aztecs and the Incas

The Roman Catholic Church in Spanish America

Economics of Exploitation in the Spanish Empire

Varieties of Economic Activity

Commercial Regulation and the Flota System

Colonial Brazil

French and British colonies in North America

The Columbian Exchange: Disease, Animals, and Agriculture

Diseases Enter the Americas

Animals and Agriculture

Slavery in the Americas

The Background of Slavery

Establishment of Slavery

The Plantation Economy and Transatlantic Trade

Slavery on the Plantations

Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade

Slavery and Slaving in Africa

The African Side of the Transatlantic Trade

The Extent of the Slave Trade

Consequences of the Slave Trade for Africa

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

19. East Asia in the Late Traditional Era.

Late Imperial China.

Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) Dynasties

Land And People

China’s Third Commercial Revolution

Political System

Ming-Qing Foreign Relations

Ming-Qing Culture

Japan.

Warring States Era (1467-1600)

War of All Against All

Foot Soldier Revolution

Foreign Relations and Trade

Tokugawa Era (1600-1868)

Political Engineering and Economic Growth During the Seventeenth Century

Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries

Tokugawa Culture

Korea and Vietnam.

Korea

Early History

Korea: The Choson Era

Vietnam

Early History

Late Traditional Vietnam

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

20. State-Building and Society in Early Modern Europe.

European Political Consolidation

Two Models of European Political Development

Toward Parliamentary Government in England

The “Glorious Revolution”

Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The World of Louis XIV

Years of Personal Rule

Russia Enters the European Political Arena

Birth of the Romanov Dynasty

Peter the Great

The Habsburg Empire ad the Pragmatic Sanction

The Rise of Prussia

European Warfare: From Continental to World Conflict

The Wars of Louis XIV

The Eighteenth-Century Colonial Arena

War of Jenkins’s Ear

The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748)

The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)

The Old Regime

Maintenance of Tradition

Hierarchy and Privilege

Aristocracy

The Land and Its Tillers

Peasants and Serfs

Family Structures and the Family Economy

The Family Economy

Women and the Family Economy

The Revolution in Agriculture

New Crops and New Methods

Population Expansion

The Eighteenth-Century Industrial Revolution: An Event in World History

Industrial Leadership of Great Britain

European Cities

Patterns of Preindustrial Urbanization

Urban Classes

The Jewish Population: Age of the Ghetto

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

21. The Last Great Islamic Empires 1500-1800.

The Ottoman Empire and the East Mediterranean World

Origins and Development of the Ottoman State Before 1600

The “Classical” Ottoman Order

After Süleyman: Challenges and Change

The Decline of Ottoman Military and Political Power

The Safavid Empire and the West Asian World

Origins

Shah Abbas I

Safavid Decline

Culture and Learning

The Mughals

Origins

Akbar’s Reign

The Last Great Mughals

Sikhs and Marathas

Political Decline

Religious Developments

Central Asia: Islamization in the Post-Timur Era

Uzbeks and Chaghatiays

Consequences of the Shi’ite Rift

Power Shifts in the Southern Oceans

Southern –Oceans Trade

Control of the Southern Seas

The Indies: Acheh

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

PART V. ENLIGHTENMENT AND REVOLUTION IN THE WEST.

22. The Age of European Enlightenment.

The Scientific Revolution

Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects and Earth-centered Universe

Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler

Galileo Galilei

Francis Bacon: The Empirical Method

Isaac Newton Discovers the Laws of Gravitation

Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution

John Locke

The Enlightenment

Voltaire

The Encyclopedia

The Enlightenment and Religion

Deism

Toleration

Islam in Enlightenment Thought

The Enlightenment and Society

Montesquieu and “The Spirit of the Laws”

Adam Smith on Economic Growth and Social Progress

Rousseau

Enlightened Critics of European Empire

Women in the Thought and Practice of the Enlightenment

Enlightened Absolutism

Joseph II of Austria

Catherine the Great of Russia

The Partition of Poland

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

23. Revolutions in the Transatlantic World.

Revolution in the British Colonies in North America

Resistance to the Imperial Search for Revenue

American Political Ideas

Crisis and Independence

Revolution in France

Revolutions of 1789

Reconstruction of France

A Second Revolution

The Reign of Terror and Its Aftermath

The Napoleonic Era

The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement

Wars of Independence in Latin America

Eighteenth- Century Developments

First movements Toward Independence

San Martín in Río de la Plata

Simón Bolívar’s Liberation of Venezuela

Independence in New Spain

Brazilian Independence

Toward the Abolition of Slavery in the Transatlantic Economy

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

24. Political Consolidation in Nineteenth-Century Europe and North America 1815-1880.

The Emergence of Nationalism in Europe

Creating Nations

Meaning of Nationhood

Regions of Nationalistic Pressure in Europe

Early-Nineteenth-Century Political Liberalism

Politics

Economics

Relationship of Nationalism and Liberalism

Liberalism and Nationalism in Modern World History

Efforts to Liberalize Early-Nineteenth-Century European Political Structures

Russia: The Decembrist Revolt of 1825 and the Autocracy of Nicholas I

Revolution in France (1830)

The Great Reform bill in Britain (1832)

1848: Year of Revolutions in Europe

Testing the New American Republic

Toward Sectional Conflict

The Abolitionist Movement

The Canadian Experience

Road to Self-Government

Keeping a Distinctive Culture

Mid-century Political Consolidation in Europe

The Crimean War

Italian Unification

German Unification

The Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire

Unrest of Nationalities in Eastern Europe

Racial Theory and Anti-Semitism

Anti-Semitism and the Birth of Zionism

Review Questions

Summary

Key Terms

PART VI. INTO THE MODERN WORLD.

25. Northern Transatlantic Economy and Society 1815-1914.

European Factory Workers and Urban Artisans

Nineteenth-Century European Women

Women in the Early Industrial Revolution

Social Disabilities Confronted by All Women

New Employment Patterns for Women

Late-Nineteenth-Century Working-Class Women

The Rise of Political Feminism

Jewish Emancipation

Early Steps to Equal Citizenship

Broadened Opportunities

European Labor, Socialism, and Politics to World War I

The Working Class in the Late Nineteenth Century

Marxist Critique of the Industrial Order

Germany: Social Democrats and Revisionism

Great Britain: The Labour Party and Fabianism

Russia: Industrial Development and the Birth of Bolshevism

European Socialism in World History

North America and the New Industrial Economy

European Immigration to the United States

Unions: Organization of Labor

The Progressives

Social Reform

The Progressive Presidency

The Emergence of Modern European Thought

Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection

The Revolution in Physics

Frederich Nietzsche and the Revolt Against Reason

The Birth of Psychoanalysis

Islam and Late-Nineteenth-Century European Thought

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

26. Latin America: From Independence to the 1940s.

Independence Without Revolution

Immediate Consequences of Latin American Independence

Absence of Social Change

Control of the Land

Submissive Political Philosophies

Economy of Dependence

New Exploitation of Resources

Increased Foreign Ownership and Influence

Economic Crises and New Directions

Search for Political Stability

Three National Histories

Argentina

Mexico

Brazil

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

27. India, the Islamic Heartlands, and Africa: The Challenge of Modernity (1800-1945).

THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE

British Dominance and Colonial Rule

Building the Empire: The First Half of the Nineteenth Century

British-Indian Relations

From British Crown Raj to Independence

The Burden of Crown Rule

Indian Resistance

Hindu-Muslim Friction on the Road to Independence

THE ISLAMIC EXPERIENCE

Islamic Responses to Declining Power and Independence

Western Political Economic Encroachment

The Western Impact

Islamic Responses to Foreign Encroachment

Emulation of the West

Integration of Western and Islamic Ideas

Purification and Revival of Islam

Nationalism

THE AFRICAN EXPERIENCE

New States and Power Centers

Southern Africa

East and Central Africa

West Africa

Islamic Reform Movements

Increasing European Involvement: Exploration and Colonization

Explorers

Christian Missions

The Colonial “Scramble for Africa”

Patterns in European Colonial Rule and African Resistance

The Rise of African Nationalism

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

* Religions of the World: Islam

28. MODERN EAST ASIA.

MODERN CHINA (1839-1949).

Close of Manchu Rule

The Opium War

Rebellions Against the Manchu

Self-Strengthening and Decline (1874-1895)

The Borderlands: The Northwest, Vietnam, and Korea

From Dynasty to Warlordism (1895-1926)

Cultural and Ideological Ferment: The May Fourth Movement

Nationalist China

Guomingdang Unification of China and the Nanjing Decade (1927-1937)

War and Revolution (1937-1949)

MODERN JAPAN (1853-1945).

Overthrow of the Tokugawa Bakufu (1853-1868)

Building the Meiji State (18168-1890)

Centralization of Power

Political Parties

The Constitution

Growth of a Modern Economy

First Phase: Model Industries

Second Phase: 1880s—1890s

Third Phase: 1905-1929

Fourth Phase: Depression and Recovery

The Politics of Imperial Japan (1890-1945)

From Confrontation to the Founding of the Seiyukai (1890-1900)

The Golden Years of Meiji

Rise of the Parties to Power

Militarism and War (1927-1945)

Japanese Militarism and German Nazism

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

PART VII. GLOBAL CONFLICT AND CHANGE.

29. IMPERIALISM AND WORLD WAR I.

Expansion of European Power and the “New Imperialism”

The New Imperialism

Motives for the New Imperialism: Economic Interpretation

The “Scramble for Africa”

Emergence of the German Empire

Formation of the Triple Alliance

Bismarck’s Leadership (1873-1890)

Forging the Triple Entente (1890-1907)

World War I

The Road to War (1908-1914)

Sarajevo and the Outbreak of War (June-August 1914)

Strategies and Stalemate (1914-1917)

The Russian Revolution

End of World War I

Military Resolution

Settlement at Paris

Evaluation of the Peace

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

30. DEPRESSION, EUROPEAN DICTATORS, AND THE AMERICAN NEW DEAL

After Versailles: Demand for Revision and Enforcement

Toward the Great Depression in Europe

Financial Tailspin

Problems in Agricultural Commodities

Depression and Government Policy

The Soviet Experiment

War Communism

The New Economic Policy

Stalin Versus Trotsky

Decision for Rapid Industrialization

The Purges

The Fascist Experiment in Italy

Rise of Mussolini

The Fascists in Power

Germen Democracy and Dictatorship

The Weimar Republic

Depression and Political Deadlock

Hitler Comes to Power

Hitler’s Consolidation of Power

The Police State

Women in Nazi Germany

The Great Depression and the New Deal in the United States

Economic Collapse

New Role for Government

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

31. WORLD WAR II

Again The Road to War (1933-1939)

Hitler’s Goals

Destruction of Versailles

Italy Attacks Ethiopia

Remilitarization of the Rhineland

The Spanish Civil War

Austria and Czechoslovakia

Munich

The Nazi-Soviet Pact

World War II (1939-1945)

German Conquest of Europe

Battle of Britain

German Attack on Russia

Hitler’s Europe

Racism and the Holocaust

The Road to Pearl Harbor

America’s Entry into the War

The Tide Turns

Defeat of Nazi Germany

Fall of Japanese Empire

The Cost of War

The Domestic Fronts

Germany: From Apparent Victory to Defeat

France: Defeat, Collaboration and Resistance

Great Britain: Organization for Victory

The Soviet Union: “The Great Patriotic War”

Preparations for Peace

The Atlantic Charter

Tehran

Yalta

Potsdam

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

32. The West Since World War II.

The Cold War Era

Initial Causes

Areas of Early Cold War Conflict

NATO and the Warsaw Pact

Crises of 1956

The Cold War Intensified

Détente and Afterward

European Society in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century

Toward Western European Unification

Students and Popular Music

The Movement of Peoples

The New Muslim Population

New Patterns in the Work and Expectations of Women

American Domestic Scene Since World War II

Truman and Eisenhower Administrations

Civil Rights

New Social Programs

The Vietnam War and Domestic Turmoil

The Watergate Scandal

The Triumph of Political Conservation

The Soviet Union to 1989

The Khrushchev Years

Brezhnev

Communism and Solidarity in Poland

Gorbachev Attempts to Redirect the Soviet Union

1989: Year of Revolutions in Eastern Europe

Solidarity Reemerges in Poland

Hungary Moves Toward Independence

The Breach of the Berlin Wall and German Reunification

The Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia

Violent Revolution in Romania

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

Renunciation of Communist Political Monopoly

The August 1991 Coup

The Yeltsin Years

The Collapse of Yugoslavia and the Civil War

Challenges to the Atlantic Alliance

Challenges to the International Security Front

Strains over Environmental Policy

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

33. EAST ASIA: THE RECENT DECADES

Japan

The Occupation

Parliamentary Politics

Economic Growth

Japan and the World

China

Soviet Period (1950-1960)

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1965-1976)

China After Mao

Taiwan

Korea

A Japanese Colony

North and South

Civil War and U.S. Involvement

Recent Developments

Vietnam

The Colonial Backdrop

The Anticolonial War

The Vietnam War

War with Cambodia

Recent Developments

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

34. Posstcolonialism and Beyond: Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East.

Beyond the Postcolonial Era

Latin America Since 1945

Revolutionary Challenges

Pursuit of Stability Under the Threat of Revolution

Continuity and Change in Recent Latin American History

Postcolonial Africa

The Transition to Independence

The African Future

Trade and Development

The Islamic Heartlands, from North Africa to Indonesia

Turkey

Iran and Its Islamic Revolution

Afghanistan and the Former Soviet Republics

India

Pakistan and Bangladesh

Indonesia and Malaysia

The Postcolonial Middle East

Postcolonial Nations in the Middle East

The Arab-Israeli Conflict

Middle Eastern Oil

The Rise of Militant Islamism

Iraq and United States: Intervention and Occupation

Summary

Review Questions

Key Terms

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