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|The Coming of Civilization||1|
|Empires and Cultures of the Ancient World||75|
|Consolidation and Interaction of World Civilization||225|
|The World in Transition||420|
|Enlightenment and Revolution in the West||656|
|Into the Modern World||740|
|Global Conflict and Change||926|
The idea of globalization is now a pressing reality on the life of nations, affecting the domestic security of their citizens, their standard of living, and the environment. Whether, as Samuel Huntington, the distinguished Harvard political scientist, contends, we are witnessing a clash of civilizations, we have certainly entered a new erg in which no active citizen or educated person can escape the necessity of understanding the past in global terms. Both the historical experience and the moral and political values of the different world civilizations now demand our attention and our understanding. It is our hope that in these new, challenging times The Heritage of World Civilizations will provide one path to such knowledge.
Globalization—that is, the increasing interaction and interdependency of the various regions of the world—has resulted from two major historical developments: the closing of the European era of world history and the rise of technology.
From approximately 1500 to the middle of the twentieth century, Europeans gradually came to dominate the world through colonization (most particularly in North and South America), state-building, economicproductivity, and military power. That era of European dominance ended during the third quarter of the twentieth century after Europe had brought unprecedented destruction on itself during World War II and as the nations of Asia, the Near East, and Africa achieved new positions on the world scene. Their new political independence, their control over strategic natural resources, and the expansion of their economies (especially those of the nations of the Pacific rim of Asia), and in some cases their access to nuclear weapons have changed the shape of world affairs.
Further changing the world political and social situation has been a growing discrepancy in the economic development of different regions that is often portrayed as a problem between the northern and southern hemispheres. Beyond the emergence of this economic disparity has been the remarkable advance of political Islam during the past forty years. In the midst of all these developments, as a result of the political collapse of the former Soviet Union, the United States has emerged as the single major world power.
The second historical development that continues to fuel the pace of globalization is the advance of technology, associated most importantly with transportation, military weapons, and electron communication. The advances in transportation over the past two centuries including ships, railways, and airplanes have made more parts of the world and its resources accessible to more people in ever shorter spans of time. Military weapons of increasingly destructive power over the past century and a half enabled Europeans and then later the United States to dominate other regions of the globe. Now, the spread of these weapons means that any nation with sophisticated military technology can threaten other nations, no matter how far away. Furthermore, technologies that originated in the West from the early twentieth century to the present have been turned against the West. More recently, the electronic revolution associated with computer technology has sparked unprecedented speed and complexity in global communications. It is astonishing to recall that personal computers have been generally available for less than twenty-five years and the rapid personal communication associated with them has existed for less than fifteen years.
Why not, then, focus only on new factors in the modern world, such as the impact of technology and the end of the European era? To do so would ignore the very deep roots that these developments have in the past. More important, the events of recent months and the response to them demonstrate, as the authors of this book have long contended, that the major religious traditions continue to shape and drive the modern world as well as the world of the past. The religious traditions link today's civilizations to their most ancient roots. We believe this emphasis on the great religious traditions recognizes not only a factor that has shaped the past, but one that is profoundly and dynamically alive in our world today.
BALANCED AND FLEXIBLE PRESENTATION. In this edition, as in past editions, we have sought to present world history fairly, accurately, and in a way that does justice to its great variety. History has many facets, no one of which can account for the others. Any attempt to tell the story of civilization from a single perspective, no matter how timely, is bound to neglect or suppress some important part of that story.
Historians have recently brought a vast array of new tools and concepts to bear on the study of history. Our coverage introduces students to various aspects of social and intellectual history as well as to the more traditional political, diplomatic, and military coverage. We firmly believe that only through an appreciation of all pathways to understanding of the past can the real heritage of world civilizations be claimed.
The Heritage of World Civilizations, Sixth Edition, is designed to accommodate a variety of approaches to a course in world civilization, allowing teachers to stress what is most important to them. Some teachers will ask students to read all the chapters. Others will select among them to reinforce assigned readings and lectures.
CLARITY AND ACCESSIBILITY. Good narrative history requires clear, vigorous prose. Our goal has been to make our presentation fully accessible to students without compromising on vocabulary or conceptual level. We hope this effort will benefit both teachers and students.
RECENT SCHOLARSHIP. As in previous editions, changes in this edition reflect our determination to incorporate the most recent developments in historical scholarship and the expanding concerns of professional historians.
The Sixth Edition includes greater discussion of the origins of humankind in Chapter 1, incorporation of new scholarship on Islam and East Asia, updated coverage of developments in Africa and Latin America, and analysis of globalization, terrorism, women's rights, and recent events in the Middle East.
PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES. This edition retains the pedagogical features of the last edition, helping to make the text accessible to students, reinforcing key concepts, and providing a global, comparative perspective.
This edition of The Heritage of World Civilizations includes new pedagogical features, many content revisions, and a new feature, Art and the World essays, described below.
CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION. The many changes in content and organization in this edition of The Heritage of World Civilizations reflect our ongoing effort to present a truly global survey of world civilization that at the same time gives a rich picture of the history of individual regions.
To better accomplish this, several significant changes to the book's organization have been carried out in this revision. Coverage of events during the European High Middle Ages and the Renaissance, which was formerly treated in two chapters, has been reconceived into a single chapter (Chapter 15) entitled, "Europe to the Early 1500s: Revival, Decline, and Renaissance." Coverage of Europe and North America in the nineteenth century, which formerly was addressed in four chapters, has been streamlined so that it is discussed in two new chapters (Chapters 25 and 26) that integrate discussion of the ideas, politics, society, and culture of the period. This consolidation of material on Europe provides for an even more balanced treatment of world history, a smoother narrative line, and a reduction of the total number of chapters from thirty-eight to thirty-five.
To provide instructors with more flexible teaching options, The Heritage of World Civilizations is available in both two volumes (Volume One: To 1700; Volume Two: Since 1500), and three volumes (Volume A: To 1500; Volume B: From 1300 to 1800; Volume C: Since 1700).
ART AND THE WORLD ESSAYS. A beautiful and important new feature enhances students' understanding of the artistic heritage of world civilizations. In every chapter we highlight a work of art or architecture and discuss how the work illuminates and reflects the period in which it was created. In chapter 6, for example, Nok sculpture is examined for what it can tell us about West African society in antiquity. In chapter 11, the magnificence and antiquity of medieval Islamic civilization is discussed through the prism of the Alhambra. In chapter 16, Baroque church architecture is looked at as a commentary on the religious clashes of the Reformation. And in chapter 35, Latin-American painters Jacobo Borges and Fernando Botero are interpreted for their ability to vividly critique ruling regimes.
WORLD AND THE WEB. To help students effectively use the vast resources of the Internet for research related to world history, each chapter in the text concludes with an annotated listing of stable and notable sites pertinent to the topics at hand.
A NOTE ON DATES AND TRANSLITERATIONS. We have used B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (common era) instead of B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno domini, the year of our Lord) to designate dates.
Until recently, most scholarship on China used the Wade-Giles system of romanization for Chinese names and terms. In order that students may move easily from the present text to the existing body of advanced scholarship on Chinese history, we have used the Wade-Giles system throughout. China today, however, uses another system known as pinyin. Virtually all Western newspapers have adopted it. Therefore, for Chinese history since 1949 we have included the pinyin spellings in parentheses after the Wade-Giles.
Also, we have followed the currently accepted English transliterations of Arabic words. For example, today Koran is being replaced by the more accurate Qur'an; similarly Muhammad is preferable to Mohammed and Muslim to Moslem. We have not tried to distinguish the letters 'ayn and hamza; both are rendered by a simple apostrophe (') as in shi'ite.
With regard to Sanskritic transliteration, we have not distinguished linguals and dentals, and both palatal and lingual s are rendered sh, as in Shiva and Upanishad.
The Heritage of World Civilizations, Sixth Edition, comes with an extensive package of ancillary materials.
Prentice Hall and Penguin Bundle Program. Prentice Hall and Penguin are pleased to provide adopters of The Heritage of World Civilizations with an opportunity to receive significant discounts when orders for The Heritage of World Civilizations are bundled together with Penguin titles in world history. Contact your local Prentice Hall representative for details.
The ancillary package also includes an extensive array of multimedia supplements:
The Prentice Hall Guide to Evaluating Online Sources takes students from Web surfers to critical researchers. This guide helps students to search and locate appropriate research articles, critically evaluate them, and cite them properly. In addition, it contains a unique access code that gives students entry into Content Select, a powerful online research database. A multitude of articles from both history journals and popular periodicals are accessible to students from wherever they are doing research: at home, in their dorm, in a lab, or at work. The Prentice Hall Guide to Evaluating Online Resources is available free when wrapped with copies of The Heritage of World Civilizations.
Documents CD-ROM. Packaged free with each new copy of The Heritage of World Civilizations, the brand-new Documents CD-ROM features all of the source documents from The Heritage of World Civilizations Documents Set ($16.00 net value per volume) as easily navigable PDF files, viewable in Adobe Acrobat Reader. Additionally, document-study questions are linked to the Companion Website that accompanies the text, allowing students to submit answers directly to their instructor via e-mail for grading.
The Companion Website works in tandem with the text to help students use the online resources to enrich their understanding of world history. Featuring chapter objectives and study questions organized by the main subtopics of each chapter, document-based essay questions, map labeling exercises, and map explorations, it links the text with related material available on the Internet. For instructors, the Companion Website offers maps, charts, and graphs in PDF format for classroom presentations, as well as an online version of the instructor's manual.
Instructor CD-ROM for The Heritage of World Civilizations. This new multimedia ancillary contains a PowerPoint presentation directly linked to the organization of the text, as well as maps and graphs from The Heritage of World Civilizations, lecture outlines, and digitized images from the "Art and the World" essays.
Course Management Systems. Prentice Hall provides a variety of course management solutions for teachers of world history. Contact your local Prentice Hall representative for details.