Hezekiah in History and Tradition

Overview

The Judean Monarch Hezekiah remains one of the most significant figures in biblical studies. For all of his greatness, however, there is little about him that may be stated with certainty. This study provides a detailed reexamination of this enterprising ruler. It commences with data outside the biblical text from Assyrian records and ancient Near Eastern archaeology which may be brought to bear in reconstructing the historical Hezekiah, and subsequently proceeds to augment this picture based on his portrayal in ...

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Overview

The Judean Monarch Hezekiah remains one of the most significant figures in biblical studies. For all of his greatness, however, there is little about him that may be stated with certainty. This study provides a detailed reexamination of this enterprising ruler. It commences with data outside the biblical text from Assyrian records and ancient Near Eastern archaeology which may be brought to bear in reconstructing the historical Hezekiah, and subsequently proceeds to augment this picture based on his portrayal in the books of Kings, First Isaiah, and Chronicles. Its focus is on those issues that either remain contentious in biblical scholarship, or else have been resolved into a general consensus that needs to be called into question.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9789004216082
  • Publisher: Brill Academic Publishers, Inc.
  • Publication date: 5/3/2012
  • Series: Vetus Testamentum, Supplements Series
  • Pages: 368
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.40 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Robb Young received his Master’s degree in The Bible and Its World from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (2004), and his Ph.D. in Hebrew Bible from Yale University (2011).
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgements ix

Abbreviations xi

Introduction 1

Part 1 Hezekiah Via Extra-Biblical Material

1 Regnal Years and Lineage 9

1.1 The Regnal Years of Hezekiah 9

1.1.1 Overview 9

1.1.2 The Date of the Fall of Samaria 12

1.1.3 The Date of the Fall of Jerusalem 18

1.1.4 Regnal Years of the Latter Kings of Judah 21

1.2 The Lineage of Hezekiah 24

1.2.1 Relationship to Ahaz 24

1.2.2 Relationship to Ataliah 28

1.3 Conclusion 32

2 The Kingdom of Judah 35

2.1 Assyrian Relations 35

2.2 The Urbanization of Jerusalem 42

2.3 The Siloam Tunnel 48

2.4 The LMLK Seals 50

2.5 Conclusion 58

3 Sennacherib's Third Campaign 61

3.1 Archaeological Evidence 62

3.2 The Number of Assyrian Campaigns 66

3.3 Taharqo 73

3.4 Historical Reconstruction 77

3.5 Conclusion 86

Part 2 Hezekiah in the Book of Kings and First Isaiah

4 The Religious Reform 91

4.1 Archaeological Evidence 93

4.1.1 Arad 93

4.1.2 Beer-sheba 95

4.1.3 Lachish 97

4.2 Biblical Evidence 101

4.2.1 The Report in 2 Kgs 18:4 101

4.2.2 The Report in 2 Kgs 18:22 104

4.3 The Social Setting of the Reform 109

4.4 Conclusion 120

5 The Relationship between 2 Kgs 18:13-20:19 and Isa 36-39 123

5.1 Relative Priority of the Texts 123

5.1.1 Annalistic Account A (2 Kgs 1813-16) 123

5.1.2 Prophetic Account B (2 Kgs 1817-19:37/Usa 36-37) 126

5.1.3 Hezekiah and Isaiah (2 Kgs 20/Isa 38-39) 133

5.2 Editing of the Texts 136

5.2.1 Source Division 136

5.2.2 Literary Analysis 142

5.2.3 The Secondary Nature of "The Fourteenth Year" 146

5.3 Conclusion 150

6 The Messianic Oracles in First Isaiah 151

6.1 Isa 8:23-9:6 152

6.1.1 Overview 152

6.1.2 Literary Extent and Structure 152

6.1.3 Tense/Aspect Analysis 156

6.1.4 Translation 158

6.1.5 Function of Isa 9:5-6 159

6.1.6 Literary and Historical Context 161

6.2 Isa N:1-9 164

6.2.1 Overview 164

6.2.2 Literary Extent 165

6.2.3 The Significance of the "Shoot" 170

6.2.4 Literary and Historical Context 177

6.3 Isa 7 and the Sign of Immanuel 181

6.3.1 Overview 181

6.3.2 The Identity of Immanuel 182

6.4 Conclusion 190

Part 3 Hezekiah in Chronicles

7 The Historical Reliability of 2 Chr 29-30 195

7.1 The Rededication of the Temple (2 Chr 29) 197

7.1.1 Authorship 197

7.1.2 Material 202

7.2 The Passover (2 Chr 30) 209

7.2.1 Summary Statement 209

7.2.2 Other Historical Objections 213

7.2.3 Correspondence to Josiah's Passover and Deuteronomy 215

7.2.4 Source Material 222

7.2.5 The Second Month 227

7.3 Conclusion 231

8 The Historical Reliability of 2 Chr 31-32 235

8.1 The Reform and the Portions (2 Chr 31) 235

8.1.1 The Reform 235

8.1.2 Distribution of the Portions 238

8.1.3 Historical Analysis of the Portions 244

8.2 The Invasion of Sennacherib (2 Chr 32) 249

8.2.1 Hezekiah's Defensive Measures (vv 3-6) 249

8.2.2 Hezekiah's Achievements (vv 27-30) 253

8.3 Conclusion 254

9 Hezekiah as a Second David/Solomon 257

9.1 The Dynastic Promises to David and Solomon 259

9.1.1 Conditional and Unconditional Material 259

9.1.2 The Depiction of Solomon 263

9.2 The Pro-Solomonic Source of Chronicles 267

9.3 The Hezekian Provenance of the Source Material 276

9.4 Conclusion 282

Summary and Future Directions 285

Appendix A 295

Appendix B 299

Bibliography 301

Author Index 335

Scripture Index 343

Subject Index 360

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