High-Fidelity Medical Imaging Displays

High-Fidelity Medical Imaging Displays

by Aldo Badano, Jerzy Kanicki, Michael J. Flynn
     
 

This tutorial text, based on a short course presented at the SPIE Medical Imaging Symposia from 1999 to 2000 explains performance and quality consideration in medical imaging displays. After defining performance requirements for highfidelity displays, the book introduces the display technologies (CRT, AMLCD) that are or likely will be used in medical imaging… See more details below

Overview

This tutorial text, based on a short course presented at the SPIE Medical Imaging Symposia from 1999 to 2000 explains performance and quality consideration in medical imaging displays. After defining performance requirements for highfidelity displays, the book introduces the display technologies (CRT, AMLCD) that are or likely will be used in medical imaging workstations, including an emerging technology (OLED) that may enable the design of portable display devices. The book concludes with methods to assess image quality. Although not a collection of stepbystep procedures, this book can be used in a clinical environment buy those with access to the appropriate instrumentation.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780819451910
Publisher:
SPIE Press
Publication date:
06/28/2004
Series:
Tutorial Texts in Optical Engineering Series
Pages:
174
Product dimensions:
6.90(w) x 9.90(h) x 0.60(d)

Table of Contents

List of Figuresxi
List of Tablesxv
Prefacexvii
Chapter 1Introduction1
1.1Medical Imaging Display Markets1
1.2Units of Measure2
Chapter 2High-Fidelity Display Performance5
2.1Contrast Sensitivity5
2.2Luminance Response7
2.3Luminance Range9
2.4Adaptation9
2.5Retinal Anatomy and Visual Acuity10
2.6Veiling Glare13
2.6.1Glare in the human eye13
2.6.2Veiling glare in displays14
2.6.2.1Sources of glare14
2.6.2.2Effect of veiling glare17
2.7Ambient Light Reflections18
2.7.1Specular reflection19
2.7.2Diffuse reflection21
2.8High-Fidelity Display Requirements22
Chapter 3Cathode-Ray Tubes25
3.1Cathodes26
3.2Electron Optics28
3.3Emissive Structure28
3.4Signal Electronics29
3.5Color CRTs32
3.6Spot Size33
3.7Monochrome Phosphors34
3.8Antireflection Surface Treatments35
3.9Face-plate Absorption36
3.10Gray-scale Controllers36
Chapter 4Active-Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays39
4.1The Liquid Crystal Cell40
4.2Efficiency of Light Transmission42
4.3Addressing Methods43
4.4Elements of an AMLCD44
4.5Crosstalk in AMLCDs47
4.6Luminance Variations with Viewing Angle48
4.7Solutions to Viewing Angle Problem51
4.7.1Compensation foils51
4.7.2Multiple domain cells52
4.7.3Symmetry micro-cells53
4.7.4In-plane switching53
4.7.5Vertical alignment54
Chapter 5Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Displays55
5.1Introduction to OLEDs55
5.1.1History of OLEDs56
5.1.2OLEDs for displays57
5.1.3OLED structures58
5.1.4EL organic materials62
5.2Evaluation of Device Opto-Electronic Performance65
5.3Device Configuration and Display Fabrication65
5.3.1Conventional OLED66
5.3.2Side-by-side subpixels67
5.3.3White OLED filtering67
5.3.4Blue OLED down-conversion69
5.3.5Microcavity OLEDs69
5.3.6Color-tunable OLEDs70
5.3.7Pyramid-shaped pixel OLEDs70
5.3.8Stacked OLEDs71
5.4OLED Stability and Encapsulation for Displays74
5.4.1Impact of moisture and oxygen74
5.4.2Influence of dark spots77
5.4.3Encapsulation methods79
5.5Display Addressing and Driving Circuit81
5.5.1PM-addressing method82
5.5.2AM-addressing method84
5.6TFT Technology for AM Displays85
5.6.1a-Si:H TFT technology86
5.6.2Poly-Si TFT Technology87
5.6.3Pixel electrode circuits88
5.7Methods to Improve AMOLED Contrast Ratio100
5.8Current Market and Future Trends101
5.8.1Comparison between OLED and non-LED displays101
5.8.2Comparison between OLEDs and inorganic LEDs103
5.8.3Current and future challenges103
Chapter 6Display Image Quality Metrics105
6.1Luminance Response105
6.1.1Luminance calibration107
6.1.2Angular emission109
6.2Contrast Ratio114
6.2.1Veiling glare114
6.2.2Electronic crosstalk116
6.3Spatial Frequency123
6.4Noise125
6.5Reflectance129
6.5.1Reflectance models130
6.5.2Measuring display reflections131
6.5.3Bidirectional reflection distribution function135
6.6Evaluation Software and Standards136
References139
Index151

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