High-Fidelity Medical Imaging Displays

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Overview

This tutorial text, based on a short course presented at the SPIE Medical Imaging Symposia from 1999 to 2000 explains performance and quality consideration in medical imaging displays. After defining performance requirements for highfidelity displays, the book introduces the display technologies (CRT, AMLCD) that are or likely will be used in medical imaging workstations, including an emerging technology (OLED) that may enable the design of portable display devices. The book concludes with methods to assess image quality. Although not a collection of stepbystep procedures, this book can be used in a clinical environment buy those with access to the appropriate instrumentation.
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Product Details

Table of Contents

List of Figures xi
List of Tables xv
Preface xvii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Medical Imaging Display Markets 1
1.2 Units of Measure 2
Chapter 2 High-Fidelity Display Performance 5
2.1 Contrast Sensitivity 5
2.2 Luminance Response 7
2.3 Luminance Range 9
2.4 Adaptation 9
2.5 Retinal Anatomy and Visual Acuity 10
2.6 Veiling Glare 13
2.6.1 Glare in the human eye 13
2.6.2 Veiling glare in displays 14
2.6.2.1 Sources of glare 14
2.6.2.2 Effect of veiling glare 17
2.7 Ambient Light Reflections 18
2.7.1 Specular reflection 19
2.7.2 Diffuse reflection 21
2.8 High-Fidelity Display Requirements 22
Chapter 3 Cathode-Ray Tubes 25
3.1 Cathodes 26
3.2 Electron Optics 28
3.3 Emissive Structure 28
3.4 Signal Electronics 29
3.5 Color CRTs 32
3.6 Spot Size 33
3.7 Monochrome Phosphors 34
3.8 Antireflection Surface Treatments 35
3.9 Face-plate Absorption 36
3.10 Gray-scale Controllers 36
Chapter 4 Active-Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays 39
4.1 The Liquid Crystal Cell 40
4.2 Efficiency of Light Transmission 42
4.3 Addressing Methods 43
4.4 Elements of an AMLCD 44
4.5 Crosstalk in AMLCDs 47
4.6 Luminance Variations with Viewing Angle 48
4.7 Solutions to Viewing Angle Problem 51
4.7.1 Compensation foils 51
4.7.2 Multiple domain cells 52
4.7.3 Symmetry micro-cells 53
4.7.4 In-plane switching 53
4.7.5 Vertical alignment 54
Chapter 5 Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Displays 55
5.1 Introduction to OLEDs 55
5.1.1 History of OLEDs 56
5.1.2 OLEDs for displays 57
5.1.3 OLED structures 58
5.1.4 EL organic materials 62
5.2 Evaluation of Device Opto-Electronic Performance 65
5.3 Device Configuration and Display Fabrication 65
5.3.1 Conventional OLED 66
5.3.2 Side-by-side subpixels 67
5.3.3 White OLED filtering 67
5.3.4 Blue OLED down-conversion 69
5.3.5 Microcavity OLEDs 69
5.3.6 Color-tunable OLEDs 70
5.3.7 Pyramid-shaped pixel OLEDs 70
5.3.8 Stacked OLEDs 71
5.4 OLED Stability and Encapsulation for Displays 74
5.4.1 Impact of moisture and oxygen 74
5.4.2 Influence of dark spots 77
5.4.3 Encapsulation methods 79
5.5 Display Addressing and Driving Circuit 81
5.5.1 PM-addressing method 82
5.5.2 AM-addressing method 84
5.6 TFT Technology for AM Displays 85
5.6.1 a-Si:H TFT technology 86
5.6.2 Poly-Si TFT Technology 87
5.6.3 Pixel electrode circuits 88
5.7 Methods to Improve AMOLED Contrast Ratio 100
5.8 Current Market and Future Trends 101
5.8.1 Comparison between OLED and non-LED displays 101
5.8.2 Comparison between OLEDs and inorganic LEDs 103
5.8.3 Current and future challenges 103
Chapter 6 Display Image Quality Metrics 105
6.1 Luminance Response 105
6.1.1 Luminance calibration 107
6.1.2 Angular emission 109
6.2 Contrast Ratio 114
6.2.1 Veiling glare 114
6.2.2 Electronic crosstalk 116
6.3 Spatial Frequency 123
6.4 Noise 125
6.5 Reflectance 129
6.5.1 Reflectance models 130
6.5.2 Measuring display reflections 131
6.5.3 Bidirectional reflection distribution function 135
6.6 Evaluation Software and Standards 136
References 139
Index 151
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